Heating consumption per m² and per dwelling

  • Heating consumption per m2 and per dwelling has decreased since 2000 in EU MS thanks to the implementation of stricter building codes, combined with financial incentives to promote the thermal retrofitting of existing dwellings and the adoption of more efficient heating systems (e.g. gas condensing boilers, heat pumps, pellet boilers). The reduction in heating consumption per m2 was 1.7%/year on average in the EU. It was above 2.5%/year in 4 EU MS (Slovenia, Latvia, Ireland and the Netherlands) and between 2 and 2.5%/year in 4 others (Sweden, France, Romania and Slovakia).
  • The reduction in heating consumption per m2 has slowed down significantly since 2014 in half of the MS and in some of the largest EU countries (Germany, France and the Netherlands). Several factors may explain this trend. There is less new construction, which has very high energy efficiency performance: the construction rate has decreased by 35% since the financial crisis and represents only 0.8% of the existing housing stock each year (i.e. only 8% of the new stock after 10 years). Renovation works are also less numerous, although it is difficult to have consolidated data. The diffusion of efficient heating methods (condensing boiler, heat pumps) has also slowed down.
  • Significant differences between countries from less than 5 koe/m2 in Spain, Cyprus, Portugal and Malta to around 15 koe/m2 in Latvia, Hungary, Czechia, Estonia and Romania, due to differences in climate conditions.

Heating consumption per m²

Heating consumption per dwelling

  • Energy consumption per dwelling has decreased less than consumption per m2 due to the increase in the average size of dwellings. At the EU level, consumption per dwelling has decreased by 1.3%/year since 2000 and consumption per m2 by 1.7%/year, while dwelling size has increased by 7% (0.3%/year). This means that 20% of the progress in energy efficiency for heating at EU level has been offset by the increase in dwelling size. This has been particularly important in the less developed Member States (e.g. Romania, Lithuania).

Variation of consumption per m² VS per dwelling: effect of change in dwelling size (2000-2019)

Note: Energy consumption at normal climate.