Last update December 2023
EU refers to the EU27
Heating consumption per m² and per dwelling
- Heating consumption per m2 and per dwelling has decreased since 2000 in EU MS thanks to the implementation of stricter building codes, combined with financial incentives to promote the thermal retrofitting of existing dwellings and the adoption of more efficient heating systems (e.g. gas condensing boilers, heat pumps, pellet boilers). The reduction in heating consumption per m2 was 1.4%/year on average in the EU between 2000 and 2021. It was above 2%/year in 6 EU MS (Luxembourg, Romania, Slovenia, Latvia, Germany and Ireland).
- The reduction in heating consumption per m2 has slowed down significantly since 2014 at EU level and in half of the MS, including some of the largest EU countries (Germany and France). This trend can be attributed to several factors, including a decrease in new construction projects that typically exhibit high energy efficiency performance: construction rate has decreased by 32% since the financial crisis and represents only 0.9% of the existing housing stock each year (i.e. only 9% of the new stock after 10 years). The spread of efficient heating systems (condensing boilers, heat pumps) has also slowed down, and the number of renovation projects is also comparatively lower, although it is difficult to gather consolidated data on this matter.
- Significant differences between countries from less than 5 koe/m2 in Spain, Cyprus, Portugal and Malta to around 15 koe/m2 in Czechia, Estonia and Romania, due to differences in climate conditions.
Heating consumption per m²
Heating consumption per dwelling
- Until 2014, the energy consumption per dwelling has generally decreased less than the energy consumption per m2 because of an increase in the average size of dwellings (-1.1%/year since 2000 at EU level for the consumption per dwelling vs -1.6%/year for the consumption per m2, which means that the dwelling size has increased by 0.4%/year). This means that, until 2014, around 30% of the progress in energy efficiency for heating at EU level has been offset by the increase in dwelling size. This has been particularly important in the less developed Member States (e.g. Romania, Lithuania). This size effect has become negligible since 2014 as the average size of dwellings has remained almost stable .
Variation of consumption per m² VS per dwelling: effect of change in dwelling size (2000-2014)
Note: Energy consumption at normal climate.