Heating consumption per m² and per dwelling

  • Decreasing heating consumption per m2 and per dwelling since 2000 in most countries thanks to the implementation of tightening building codes, coupled with financial incentives to promote thermal retrofitting of existing dwellings and the adoption of more efficient heating systems (e.g. gas condensing boilers, heat pumps, pellet boilers). The reduction was 1.8%/year on average in the EU, and it was above 3%/year in 3 countries (Latvia, Romania and Portugal) and between 2 and 3%/year in 6 others (Ireland, UK, Netherlands, Sweden, Slovakia and Germany).
  • The reduction of heating consumption per m2 has significantly slowed down since 2014 in most of the largest EU countries (Germany, France, UK and Netherlands). Several factors may explain this trend. There are less new construction, that have very high energy efficiency performance: the rate of construction has decreased by 35% since the financial crisis and only represents every year 0.8% of the existing stock of dwellings (i.e. only 8% of new stock after 10 years). There are also fewer renovation works, although it is difficult to have consolidated data. Diffusion of efficient heating modes (condensing boiler, heat pumps) has also slowed down. 
  • Large discrepancies between countries from less than 5 koe/m2 in Spain, Cyprus, Portugal and Malta to 15 koe/m2 in Latvia, Luxembourg, Czechia and Hungary, due to differences in climatic conditions.

Heating consumption per m²

Heating consumption per dwelling

  • Energy consumption per dwelling decreased less than consumption per m2 because of an increase in the average dwelling size: -1.4%/year for consumption per dwelling and - 1.8%/year for consumption per m2 at EU level, as dwelling size increased by 7% (0.4%/year) since 2000. This means that 20% of the energy efficiency progress for heating at EU level has been offset by the larger size of dwellings. This phenomenon was especially important in the less developed Member States (e.g. Romania or Lithuania).

Variation of consumption per m² VS per dwelling: effect of change in dwelling size (2000-2018)

Note: Energy consumption at normal climate (i.e. with climatic corrections)