Energy consumption by end-use

  • The breakdown of household energy consumption by end-use differs substantially between Member States.
  • Space heating has the highest share in household consumption in most countries (except Portugal and Malta). It represents on average 0.85 toe/dwelling (in a range of 0.06 to 1.8 toe/dwelling).
  • The second highest share is electrical appliances and lighting or water heating depending on countries. Electrical appliances and lighting consumption ranges from 0.1 to 0.3 toe/dwelling (except in Sweden, 0.43 toe/dwelling).
  • Water heating consumption varies from 0.05 to 0.3 toe/household. Since 2014, the reduction in unit consumption for water heating has slowed significantly in two large countries (France and Spain) and has even reversed (i.e. increased) in six countries (Italy, Greece, Austria, Ireland, Poland, Romania).
  • The reduction in unit consumption for cooking has been steady since 2000 (-0.7%/year at EU level). However, it has increased in Germany, Greece, Poland, Italy and Ireland.
  • Air cooling still represents a marginal share of dwelling consumption in most countries except Malta, Cyprus, Bulgaria and Croatia.

Specific consumption of households by end-use (2019)