Energy consumption by end-use

  • The breakdown of household energy consumption by end-use differs substantially between Member States. 
  • Space heating has the highest share in household consumption in most countries (except Portugal and Malta). It represents on average 0.9 toe/dwelling.
  • The second highest share is electrical appliances and lighting or water heating depending on countries. Electrical appliances and lighting consumption ranges from 0.1 to 0.3 toe/dwelling (except in Sweden, 0.5 toe/dwelling).
  • Water heating consumption ranges from 0.05 to 0.3 toe/dwelling. Since 2014, unit consumption reduction for water heating has significantly slowed down in three large countries (France, Italy, Spain) and has even reversed (i.e. increased) in three countries (Austria, Belgium, Romania).
  • Cooking unit consumption reduction has been divided by 3 since 2014, with an increase in Germany, Italy, Poland and Czechia.
  • Air cooling still represents a marginal share of dwelling consumption in most countries except Malta, Cyprus, Bulgaria and Croatia.

Specific consumption of households by end-use (2018)