Impact of structural changes on final intensity

  • The difference in the variations of the intensity and the intensity at constant structure measures the effect of structural changes
  • Structural changes only explain 16% of the final intensity decrease since 2000 (share rather stable over the period).
  • Structural changes are mainly due to structural changes within the GDP (higher share of services) and within industry (higher share of less energy intensive branches).

Impact of structural changes on the final intensity (EU)

Contribution of structural changes (EU)


  •  Most countries have moved to less energy intensive sectors. Structural changes were negligible in France, Italy, Greece and The Netherlands. It contributed to slow down the final intensity decrease in Slovakia and UK.
  • In half of EU countries structural changes explained more than 20% of the final energy intensity decrease.
  • In Finland and Croatia, they explain most of the intensity decrease (around 90%) and a large share in Austria (70%) , Czechia (50%), Poland and Sweden (around 50%).

Impact of structural changes on the final intensity in EU countries (2007-2018)

Note: Final energy intensity at normal climate (cc)