Last update November 2021
EU refers to the EU27
Impact of structural changes on final intensity
- The difference between the variations of the intensity and of the intensity at constant structure measures the effect of structural changes.
- Structural changes explain only 21% of the decrease in final intensity since 2000 (rather stable share over the period).
- The structural changes are mainly due to changes in the structure of GDP (higher share of services) and within industry (higher share of less energy intensive branches).
Impact of structural changes on the final intensity (EU)
Contribution of structural changes (EU)
- Most countries have shifted to less energy-intensive sectors. Structural changes were negligible in the Netherlands, Portugal and the UK. They contributed to slowing down the decrease in final intensity in Slovakia, Italy, France and Slovenia.
- In half of the EU MS, structural changes explain more than 20% of the decrease in final energy intensity.
- In Austria and Hungary, they explain a large part of the intensity decrease (more than 70%), as well as in Croatia and Finland (more than 60%) and Sweden (around 50%).
Impact of structural changes on the final intensity in EU countries (2007-2019)
Note: Final energy intensity at normal climate.