Climate-corrected Total Final Energy Consumption (TFC) was 25 Mtoe in 2018, i.e., 3% over the 2000 level. Industry is the largest energy consuming sector accounting for 47% of the TFC in 2018 which is 4 percent points less than in 2000. The share of transport was 17% being close to the 2000 proportion. The share of all other sectors in TFC increased from 33% to 36% from 2000 to 2018.

Figure 1: Final energy consumption by sector (normal climate)


Energy efficiency of final energy consumption sectors, as measured by ODEX, improved by 12.9% over the 2000-2018 period. The ODEX level improved most in the residential sector and least in transport. 

Figure 2: Technical Energy Efficiency Index


Finland's Integrated Energy and Climate Plan contains the national targets and the related policy measures to achieve the EU's energy and climate targets. With regard to energy efficiency, in accordance with the EED, Finland’s indicative national energy efficiency target for 2020  is the absolute level of final energy consumption at 310 TWh. The energy efficiency target to contribute to EU 2030 target in final energy consumption is 290 TWh. In 2017, Finland had achieved a level of 294 TWh for final energy consumption, corresponding to 371 TWh of primary energy consumption. 

Table 1: Sample of cross-cutting measures

MeasuresNEEAP measuresDescriptionExpected savings, impact evaluationMore information available
Eco-designyesImplementation of the Eco-design DirectiveHighLink
National Energy and Climate StrategiesnoPeriodically updated strategies. The latest one is from 2016 and updating started in 2020.HighLink
Source: MURE


As Figure 3 shows, specific heat consumption in buildings has declined by about 13% since 2000, mainly due to the increased use of heat pumps. The small variations from the long-term trend in some years (e.g in 2008) can be attributed to the fact that normalization with heating degree days does not "perfectly" correct the impact of weather, especially when there are large annual variations. Figure 4 illustrates the changes in the proportion of different energy uses in households, excluding heating. Electricity use by appliances and lighting has had a declining share due to energy efficiency improvements, accelerated in the past few years by the eco-design requirements.

Figure 3: Energy consumption of space heating per m2 (normal climate)


Figure 4: Energy consumption per dwelling by end-use (except space heating)


Energy consumption in the residential sector (Figure 5) has increased by 0.61 Mtoe (7 TWh) since 2000. It was driven upwards particularly by the continuously increasing number of dwellings and to a lesser extent increasing size of homes. On the opposite, energy savings partially offset the effect of the drivers of consumption growth.

Figure 5: Main drivers of the energy consumption variation of households


Both energy consumption and electricity consumption per m2 have declined in buildings after 2000. Some contributing factors to the observed decline are increased use of heat pumps, eco-design requirements (such as more efficient lighting, appliances and other equipment) and other energy efficiency measures. 

Figure 6: Energy and electricity consumption per m² (normal climate)


In Finland, thermal building regulations were first introduced in 1976 and have become increasingly demanding thereafter. The building code for building renovation took force in 2013. Legislation governing nearly-zero energy buildings was issued in December 2016. Heat pumps are promoted in existing houses by income tax rebates and information measures and the amount has been increasing rapidly. Ground-source heat pump is the most popular main heating system in new single-family houses. Voluntary energy efficiency agreements in the oil sector promote, among other things, replacement of old inefficient oil-fired boilers in households. There are energy efficiency agreements and an energy audit scheme in place also in the private services sectors and for municipalities and joint municipalities.

Table 2: Sample of policies and measures implemented in the building sector

MeasuresDescriptionExpected savings, impact evaluationMore information available
Building regulations (2003, 2007, 2010, 2012), new buildingsThe most recent code implements primary energy requirements for the overall energy performance of buildings. HighLink
Building regulations, renovationThese regulations implement the respective EPBD requirements in Finland.HighLink
Promotion of heat pumps in single family houses and terraced housesTax rebate and information measures to encourage installation of different types of heat pumps.HighLink
Energy efficiency agreement for oil-heated buildingsVoluntary energy efficiency agreement e.g. encouraging the replacement of old oil-fired boilersHighLink
Source: MURE


Cars account for 49% and road freight transport for 38% of energy consumption in transport. The proportions of different modes have changed only moderately since 2000, the most notable change being the 4% increase in the share of road freight transport. 

Figure 7: Transport energy consumption by mode


In passenger transport the proportion of cars and rail have slightly increased after 2000. On the other side, the share of buses tends to slightly decrease. 

Figure 8: Modal split of inland passenger traffic


In freight transport, there has been a modest modal shift from trucks to rail transport. The proportion of rail transport has increased by 3.1 percent points after 2000.

Figure 9: Modal split of inland freight traffic


In 2018, energy consumption by transport was 8% higher than in 2000. Energy savings compensated the changes in the activity levels (e.g. more traffic) but were offset by other factors which contributed to the growth. These is a shift from mass goods (e.g. paper) to parceled goods, and increased empty runs due to logistical challenges related to customer needs.

Figure 10: Main drivers of the energy consumption variation in transport


Energy improvements in new cars are taking place because of the CO2 emission norms, taxation favoring less emitting cars and information measures. However, the pace of fleet renewal in Finland is among the slowest in Europe causing some delay in seeing the full benefit of these measures. Measures are in place to support public transport and to promote non-motorized modes. In road transport of goods, allowing larger and heavier trucks to enter the roads is making a considerable contribution.

Table 3: Sample of policies and measures implemented in the transport sector

MeasuresDescriptionExpected savings, impact evaluationMore information available
Energy efficiency improvement of carsImplementation of the CO2 emission norms improves the energy efficiency of new cars.High. Impact evaluation shows the combined impact of emission norms, emission based taxation and information measures.Link
Fuel taxationTaxes on transport fuels are much higher than required by the EU energy tax directive. Also the VAT level is clearly higher than stipulated by the VAT directive.High. Notified for EED Art. 7. Link
Source: MURE


In 2018, energy consumption in industry was 11.7 Mtoe, i.e. 5% under the 2000 level. The energy-intensive pulp and paper, steel and chemical industries are the largest energy consumers, with 56%, 11% and 9% shares, respectively. Mill closures have reduced the absolute consumption of pulp and paper industry from 7.3 Mtoe in 2000 to 6.5 Mtoe in 2018.

Figure 11: Final energy consumption of industry by branch


The specific energy consumption of steel production is at a lower level than in 2000. The specific consumption of pulp and paper is higher than in 2000. Factors like product mix, growing production of kraft pulp for exports and even climate have an impact on both the national level of specific consumption and country comparisons. 

Figure 12: Unit consumption of energy‐intensive products (toe/t given as index)


The observed decline in industrial energy consumption in 2000-2018 is driven by energy savings together with structural changes towards less energy consuming branches.

Figure 13: Main drivers of the energy consumption variation in industry


The first voluntary agreements to save energy in industry were launched in 1997 and the third generation has started for the period 2017-2025. This is the main measure in industry. Monitoring results show that energy savings from these agreements are very high. Energy audits have made a major contribution but subsidized energy audits are available now only for those falling outside the scope of mandatory energy audits.

Table 4: Sample of policies and measures implemented in the industry sector

MeasuresDescriptionExpected savings, impact evaluationMore information available
Energy efficiency agreement for industriesThe energy efficiency agreement is a framework contract signed by competent ministries with the business sector. Individual companies join the agreement by an accession document.HighLink
Energy auditsSubsidized voluntary energy audits for companies not mandated to carry them out. HighLink
Source: MURE