Overview

Final energy consumption in 2017 was only 16% higher than in 2000 despite significant economic growth over the same period. In 2017, GDP is 79.5% higher compared to 2000, but only 11.5% above the pre-crisis level of 2008.

Figure 1: Final energy consumption by sector (normal climate)

Source: ODYSSEE

Overall energy efficiency as measured by ODEX improved by 36.6% from 2000 to 2017.

By sectors, the highest progress was registered in industry (53.7%), followed by the transport (32%) , residential (17.8%) and in services (8,2%).

Figure 2: Technical Energy Efficiency Index

Source: ODYSSEE

Table 1: Sample of cross-cutting measures

MeasuresNEEAP measuresDescriptionExpected savings, impact evaluationMore information available
GEN-BG0029: National Energy Efficiency Cumulative Target 2014-2020yesWith the new Energy Efficiency Law (adopted and published in State Gazette № 35/15.05.2015) the threshold for the obligated parties was changed. According to the law obligated parties are: - end suppliers, suppliers of last resort, traders with issued Operating license "electricity trading", selling electrical energy to final consumers more than 20 GWh per year; - district heating companies and suppliers, which sell heat to final consumers more than 20 GWh per year; - end suppliers and traders of natural gas selling to end consumers more than 1 million m3 per year; - liquid fuels traders selling to the end consumers more than 6.5 kt liquid fuels per year, with the exception of fuel for transport purposes; - solid fuel traders who sell to end consumers more than 13 kt solid fuels per year. Based on this analysis the National EEOS was changed with the adoption of EE Act amendment from 30 December 2016. According to the changes Bulgaria introduced alternative measures as a supplemented approach to the energy suppliers’ obligations. The chosen alternative measures are: 1. Individual energy savings targets for public buildings’ owners and Industrial systems’ owners – 2014-2016 2. National Energy Efficiency Program for Multifamily Residential Buildings renovation – ongoing Achieved savings - 7,1 PJ/year to 2018 Link
Source: MURE

Buildings

From 2000 to 2017, unit consumption for space heating in the household sector decreased by about 9.3% in conditions of significant growth (81%) of household expenditure. Electricity consumption for large electricity appliances decreased (by 9,6%) as cooking consumption. However the consumption for air conditioning increased almost two-fold (93%).

It can be concluded that households improved energy efficiency, but the effect is counterbalanced to improve the thermal comfort, greater use of household appliances, air conditioning, etc.

Figure 3: Energy consumption of space heating per m2 (normal climate)

Source: ODYSSEE

Figure 4: Energy consumption per dwelling by end-use (except space heating)

Source: ODYSSEE

The final consumption of residential sector is stable (increase of only 0,13 Mtoe)  over the period 2000-2017. Two main effects tend to increase energy consumption: larger homes (0.34 Mtoe) and other effects (0.1 Mtoe, include improved thermal comfort energy savings). Energy savings allow a 0.44 Mtoe decrease on the energy consumption.

Figure 5: Main drivers of the energy consumption variation in households

Source: ODYSSEE

Energy and electricity consumption per employee in services sector change a lot over years. In 2017, energy consumption per employee is 27.4% and electricity 21 % above the 2000 level.

Figure 6: Energy and electricity consumption per employee (normal climate)

Source: ODYSSEE

Table 2: Sample of policies and measures implemented in the building sector

MeasuresDescriptionExpected savings, impact evaluationMore information available
HOU-BG0438: National Energy Efficiency Program for Multifamily Residential Buildings renovationThe NPEEMB aims to carry out renovation of multifamily residential buildings through the implementation of energy efficiency measures and aims to ensure better living conditions for citizens in multifamily buildings, better thermal comfort and higher quality of the living environment. Up to 100% grant support for eligible expenditures covering mainly measures to: (i) improve the EE of the buildings (thermal insulation of building envelope improvements of the heating, electrical work, etc.). 0,95 PJ/year to the end of 2018 Link
Source: MURE

Transport

Road represents 91.8% of the sector's consumption in 2017 (+1.5 points compared to 2000). Rail only represents 1% of the consumption, in 2017 compared to 4% in 2000. Air transport share increased from 5.5% in 2000 to 7.1% of the consumption in 2017.

Figure 7: Split of the transport energy consumption by mode

Source: ODYSSEE

The share of cars traffic has increasing a lot since 2000 and represents in 2017, 80.8% of the passenger traffic. On the opposite the passenger traffic of buses has decreased a lot to represent 15% of traffic (32% in 2000). 

Figure 8: Share of transport modes in passenger traffic

Source: ODYSSEE

The traffic of goods (measured in tonne-kilometre) by road increased a lot for. Road represents 87% of goods traffic in 2017 (52% in 2000). The share of rail has been divided by 4.5 and represents less than 10% of freight traffic.

Figure 9: Share of modes in freight traffic

Source: ODYSSEE

Transport energy consumption has been multiplied by 2 between 2000 and 2017. Energy savings, which tend to decrease the energy consumption, represent 1.01 Mtoe. On the opposite, the growth in passengers and goods traffic and the modal shift effect more than offset the energy savings effect and explain the observed increase of the consumption.

Figure 10: Main drivers of the energy consumption variation in transport

Source: ODYSSEE

Table 3: Policies and measures into force in the transport sector

MeasuresDescriptionExpected savings, impact evaluationMore information available
TRA-BG1979: Introduction of Intelligent Transport Systems on the National Road Network and in the Urban EnvironmentThe measure provides for the introduction of intelligent transport systems for more efficient use of existing transport infrastructure, which leads to reduced fuel consumption. Intelligent transport systems in the urban environment will include traffic forecasting and management, travel information, travel management, etc.Energy savings - 2 PJ/year up to 2020Link
Source: MURE

Industry

The largest consumer branch of industry over 2000-2017 is the chemical industry with a share of more  than 32% of the industry final consumption in 2017. Non-metallic represents 21% of the consumption in 2017.

Figure 11: Final energy consumption by branch

Source: ODYSSEE, steel including blast furnaces

Unit consumption of paper has increased by 20% since 2000. After a collapse in 2009 due to the economic crisis, the unit consumption is rather flat since 2010. The unit consumption of steel has decreased regularly since 2000 (-60% in 2017 compared to 2000).

Figure 12: Unit consumption of energy‐intensive products (toe/t)

Source: ODYSSEE

Energy savings (2.5 Mtoe) and structural effect (towards less intensive branches) contribute to decrease the energy consumption of industry. On the opposite the growth in activity (expressed with production index) offsets partially this effect. As a result, the energy consumption has decreased by 1.6%/year (0.7 Mtoe).

Figure 13: Main drivers of the energy consumption variation in industry

Source: ODYSSEE

Table 4: Policies and measures into force in industry

MeasuresDescriptionExpected savings, impact evaluationMore information available
IND-BG1040: Energy Efficiency Act (EEA) – Mandatory Industrial Audits for Energy EfficiencyMandatory energy audits of all enterprises which are not SME, all industrial systems with an annual consumption over 3,000 MWh (excl. ETS) and all public lighting systems in towns with more than 20000 inhabitants and implementation of the prescribed measures.Potential savings – 2,21 PJ/year identified in the audits performed to 2018.Link
Source: MURE