Overview

Final energy consumption in Sweden was  34 Mtoe in 2017. This figure has broadly been  the same since 2000. Transport has shown a marginal increase in the last few years, by 0.99 Mtoe and agriculture has increased slightly by 0.049 Mtoe. As for industry, residential and services, they show a slight decrease in the last 20 years. Industry has decreased by 0.6 Mtoe, residential by 0.94 Mtoe and services  by 0.13 Mtoe.

Figure 1: Final energy consumption by sector (normal climate)

Source: ODYSSEE

Energy efficiency improved 20 per cent between 2000 and 2017 as measured by ODEX. The largest improvement, approximately 30 per cent, took place in residential followed by a 23 per cent improvement in the services sector. Progress in transport and industry was more modest, 13 per cent and 17 per cent, respectively. It is worth noticing that only developments in the transport sector actually follow the overall trend. In industry, energy efficiency improvements, as measured by ODEX, were significant before 2006 ( i.e. before the onset of the crisis) but since then little progress can be observed. Meanwhile, progress in the residential sector and services has been rather rapid and persistent. 

Figure 2: Technical Energy Efficiency Index

Source: ODYSSEE

The foundation for Swedish energy efficiency policy is the tax on energy and carbon dioxide emissions. However, the effects stem not only from the tax itself, but also from the concurrent effects of other policy instruments. The tax creates a general incentive for action for reduced energy use, but because of its broad approach, further instruments are needed to target specific groups of users.

Sweden has a national energy efficiency target for a reduction of the ratio between primary energy consumption and GDP by 20 per cent between 2008 and 2020, and by 50% for the period 2005-2030. By 2017 a reduction of 20 per cent was registered. However, because primary energy consumption and GDP do not correlate in a 1:1 relation, there always exists a risk that the gains in one or several years in a row may be reversed in subsequent years.  Thus, it is too early to say Sweden will reach its target, but the results so far are promising.

Table 1: Sample of cross-cutting measures

MeasuresNEEAP measuresDescriptionExpected savings, impact evaluationMore information available
Tax on energy and carbon dioxideyesA tax on energy was introduced in the 1950s. In 1992 a tax on emissions of carbon dioxide was introduced and soon these two taxes were de facto lumped together for practical purposes. Recently, efforts have been made to reduce the number of exceptions and to streamline taxation. High to very high.
Source: MURE

Buildings

Energy consumption in buildings is targeted through building codes, which include regulations for maximum energy consumption per square meter in new buildings. For space heating the corresponding figure for 2017 was 9.05 toe/m2. Since 2000 there has been a steady decrease .

Energy use for water heating was 0,22 toe/dw in 2017 as for cooking 0,024 toe/dw and the trend is decreasing over the last few years. 

Figure 3: Energy consumption of space heating per m2 (normal climate)

Source: ODYSSEE

Figure 4: Energy consumption per dwelling by end-use (except space heating)

Source: ODYSSEE

The main specified drivers for increased energy consumption in the household sector, i.e. climate, more dwellings and larger homes, are offset by energy savings by a wide margin, 2.97 Mtoe versus 2.67 Mtoe. Therefore, overall decline in energy consumption reached 0.3 Mtoe between 2000 and 2017.

Figure 5: Main drivers of the energy consumption variation in households

Source: ODYSSEE

Overall energy consumption per employee and electricity consumption per employee showed a downward trend between 2000 and 2017. Total energy consumption dropped by almost 40 per cent and electricity consumption by more than 35 per cent. However, the rate of decline for these indicators has slowed down during the last few years.

Figure 6: Energy and electricity consumption per employee (normal climate)

Source: ODYSSEE

Tax on energy and carbon dioxide are fully applied to the building sector. The main effect registered is a switch from carbon content to renewable energy for heating, but also more efficient use of energy. Moreover, technology procurement groups have probably had an important role to play in making new energy efficient technology available at lower cost. A crucial component in the Swedish policy instrument mix in this sector are building regulations which have been in place for decades and clearly indicate a trend towards more energy efficient standards. Moreover, since the 1980's the Swedish Energy Agency has been promoting technology procurement groups, which bring together major actors in a particular subsector (such as landlords of commercial spaces) in order to coordinate procurement of new technology for energy efficiency. This puts a downward pressure on prices while at the same time creating sales volume for new technology.

Table 2: Sample of policies and measures implemented in the building sector

MeasuresDescriptionExpected savings, impact evaluationMore information available
Tax on energy and carbon dioxide All use of energy is taxed according to energy content and emissions of carbon dioxide.High to very high
Technology procurement groupsCoordinated procurement of new technology for energy efficiency in e g Buildings puts a downward pressure on prices.Medium
Building codes and regulationsRegulations encompassing energy consumption in new or renovated buildings have been in for a few decades and produced significant results.Very high
Source: MURE

Transport

Energy consumption in transport was 8.51 Mtoe in 2017,this is an increase by almost 1 Mtoe compared to 2000. Energy use in rail transport has remained basically constant for both passengers and goods, while air transport has shown significant increase since 2010. Road transport is not included in 2017 data.

Figure 7: Split of the transport energy consumption by mode

Source: ODYSSEE

The share of rail transport in passenger traffic has increased by 2.5 per cent at the expense of car and bus transport.

Figure 8: Share of transport modes in passenger traffic

Source: ODYSSEE

In freight traffic no significant relative changes took place between 2000 and 2017. A slight increase in road transportation can be observed and a corresponding decrease in water transportation while rail transportation remained stable.

Figure 9: Share of modes in freight traffic

Source: ODYSSEE

Energy consumption in transportation witnessed a significant increase between 2000 and 2017, namely 13 per cent or 0.99 Mtoe. Although energy savings accounted for 1.09 Mtoe, this was overshadowed by increased activity, 1.24 Mtoe, and other drivers, 0.92 Mtoe. Modal shift played only a minor role in this development, reducing energy consumption by 0.08 Mtoe.

Figure 10: Main drivers of the energy consumption variation in transport

Source: ODYSSEE

Tax on energy and carbon dioxide play a key role for energy efficiency in the transport sector. The effects of tax are amplified by a number of measures promoting more energy efficient vehicles through tax incentives or subsidies. Another set of key policy instruments relate especially to urban transportation planning. Swedish policy in this sector has mainly targeted emissions of carbon dioxide and only to a lesser degree energy efficiency, which basically follows all-EU developments.

Table 3: Policies and measures into force in the transport sector

MeasuresDescriptionExpected savings, impact evaluationMore information available
Cooperation between public sector and businessComprehensive cooperation programmes in various transport subsectors.Low
Source: MURE

Industry

Total final energy consumption in industry has remained almost stable, with only a 0.03 Mtoe increase from 2000 to 2017. From this, more 50 per cent is used in paper and pulp industry. However, to a large extent this sector generates electricity and heat needed from residuals in its own production process.

Figure 11: Final energy consumption by branch

Source: ODYSSEE, steel including blast furnaces

Unit consumption of energy in pulp and paper industry has increased slightly in the period 2000 - 2017, while that of both steel and cement has been reduced significantly. One underlying reason for this is improved production processes.

Figure 12: Unit consumption of energyÔÇÉintensive products (toe/t)

Source: ODYSSEE

Energy savings were the most significant driver for lowering final energy consumption in industry between 2000 and 2017. A reduction of 2.5 Mtoe can be attributed directly to energy savings, while changes in activity and structure were minor in comparison. Other drivers, however, pushed energy consumption upwards by 2.7 Mtoe, leaving total decrease in final energy use at 0.6 Mtoe.

Figure 13: Main drivers of the energy consumption variation in industry

Source: ODYSSEE

Under the auspices of the Swedish Energy Agency, networks for industry for cooperation in energy efficiency have been created. These networks have led to sharing of experiences and thus to improved energy efficiency. Moreover, following from EU legislation, energy mapping takes place in large companies while smaller companies are encouraged to map their energy use through a voucher system. The networks have changed over time and currently focus is on regional networks. 

Table 4: Policies and measures into force in industry

MeasuresDescriptionExpected savings, impact evaluationMore information available
Energy efficiency networks for industry The Swedish Energy Agency in cooperation with regional energy offices finance industry networks for energy effciency. The purpose is to share experiences. High
Energy mapping vouchersVouchers for energy mapping are available for SMEs Low
Energy mapping in large enterprisesAll large companies have to carry out energy mapping according to EU law. Low
Source: MURE