Overview

The total final consumption of Slovenia increased by 9.3% (+0.41 Mtoe) in the period 2000-2017. The final energy ‎consumption increased by 17.5% (0.78 Mtoe) between 2000 and 2008 and decreased by 13% ‎‎(0.69 Mtoe) between 2008 and 2014. The increase of energy consumption was the largest in transport, ‎which increased by 51% (0.53 Mtoe), while the energy consumption in industry decreased by 9% (-0.13 Mtoe) ‎and by 4% (-0.08 Mtoe) in other sectors (households, services, agriculture). ‎

Figure 1: Final energy consumption by sector (normal climate)

Source: ODYSSEE

Energy efficiency for final consumers, as measured by ODEX, improved by an average of 1.8%/year in the‎period ‎‎ from 2000 to 2017 (26%). The ‏energy efficiency improvement in industry ‎ achieved ‎‎2.2%/year (or 31%)‏‎. The highest improvement was in services 3.3%/year ( ‎‏‏43%‏‎), while in households improved efficiency by 1.8%/year (or 27%). In ‎‏reality energy efficiency ‎improvement in households was higher but in 2009 the energy consumption in ‎households increased due to the ‎change ‎of statistical methodology. Transport was the sector with the smallest energy ‎efficiency improvement of ‎‎0.8%/year (or 13%)‎. ‏

Figure 2: Technical Energy Efficiency Index

Source: ODYSSEE

The Slovenian government has adopted four National energy efficiency action plans (NEEP). The last one, the 4th ‎NEEAP ‎‎2017-2020 has been adopted in December 2017. ‎The target of NEEAP is to limit primary energy consumption in 2020 ‎below 7.125 Mtoe (82.86 TWh), which ‎means limited growth under 2% per year in comparison to the base year ‎‎2012. ‎ The total expected energy saving, resulting from the implementation of measures for all sectors, is 4040 ‎GWh by ‎‎2020: ‎‏935‏‎ ‎GWh in industry, 1481 GWh in transport, 1201 GWh in households and 423 GWh in service ‎‏sectors. The ‎expected energy savings include energy savings reached by implementation of energy efficiency ‎measures of ‎‎NEEAPs and other measures of different national or sectoral programs or plans, which ‎‏contribute to improved ‎energy ‎efficiency. ‎ ‎ Slovenia adopted its National Energy and Climate Plan (NECP) in February 2020 setting targets for 2030. The target for final energy consumption is 4.7 Mtoe. Compared to PRIMES 2007 projections this means 35 % lower energy use. 



Table 1: Sample of cross-cutting measures

MeasuresNEEAP measuresDescriptionExpected savings, impact evaluationMore information available
Obligation of suppliers for achieving energy savings at final consumersyesSuppliers of energy are obliged to achieve energy savings at final consumers. They are preparing sets of measures that final consumers can apply and provide financial incentivesMediumLink
Quality assurance schemes for energy auditsyesEstablishment of a scheme that will include training and certification of energy auditors, systematic monitoring, support the implementation of projects on the principle of energy contractingMediumLink
Ecological Fund - ‎Eco-FundyesEco Fund is a financial institution, ‎established to support the ‎environmental and energy ‎efficiency investments in all ‎sectors.‎HighLink
Source: MURE, NECP, NEEAP

Buildings

In the residential sector, the specific energy consumption of space heating, expressed in energy per m2 of floor area of the housing stock, fell by 21% between 2000 and 2008 and by 23% in the period 2009 – 2017. In 2009 large increase in energy intensity can be observed, due to a revision of wood energy consumption, which before 2009 has been constant and is since then estimated annually with a model. Energy intensity reduction after 2009 is due to improvement of buildings performance by implementation of different measures, an important driver of which are subsidies from public fund Ecofund.

Figure 3: Energy consumption of space heating per m2

Source: ODYSSEE

Figure 4: Energy consumption per dwelling by end-use (except space heating)

Source: ODYSSEE

Final residential energy consumption in 2017 was at the same level as in 2000. Over the period, increase in the ‎number and ‎size of dwellings and in the number of appliances contributed to raise energy ‎consumption by 0.34 Mtoe. At the same ‎time, energy efficiency increased which contributed to energy savings ‏that outweighed the increase (-0.39 Mtoe). ‏‎Improved energy efficiency is due to improved technical performance of ‏buildings and appliances and also ‎behavioural changes. Behavioural changes happened due to economic ‎factors (higher energy prices, pricing based on actual consumption, etc.),  awareness raising campaigns and ‎availability of free expert counsels.  

Figure 5: Main drivers of the energy consumption variation in households

Source: ODYSSEE

In the service sector electricity consumption per employee after 2007 remains more or less constant. It is hard to make any conclusion for energy consumption trends in this sector since it is a residual and therefore not only changes in this sector have influence on energy consumption.

Figure 6: Energy and electricity consumption per employee (normal climate)

Source: ODYSSEE

Measures from the NEEAP are being upgraded in the NECP and especially in the long term renovation strategy. Subsidies and soft loans are available to private homeowners who wish to improve the ‎energy performance of their ‎‎homes through better insulation, installation of heat recovery ‎ventilation and invest in renewable ‎energy sources. Special attention is given to multifamily houses, by preparing new instruments to gain consensus for renovation, by subsidizing renovation for socially endangered at 100 % and by setting up guaranty scheme. Construction of new very efficient houses and ‎flats is also subsidised.‎‎ Building ‎Regulations set statutory ‏minimum energy performance requirements for new buildings and substantial changes in existing buildings. Regulation has been tightened in ‎‎‎2011. Further tightening is ‎envisaged in the near future. ‎‏ Financial programmes for energy renovation of buildings in public sector are in ‏place and combined with third party ‏‎financing schemes.‏ Energy management is being setup in public sector. The NECP sets the goal to reduce energy use in buildings by at least 20% in 2030 compared to 2005. 


Table 2: Sample of policies and measures implemented in the building sector

MeasuresDescriptionExpected savings, impact evaluationMore information available
Energy efficient ‎heating systemsFinancial ‎incentives for replacement of old and ‎inefficient heating systems with high energy ‎efficient ‎ones, as well as for use of renewable ‎sources and optimization of heating system ‎operationshighLink
Efficient use of ‎energy in ‎buildingsTechnical requirements for thermal insulation, ‎heating, cooling, ‎ventilation, preparation of hot ‎water and lighting in buildings.‎highLink
Energy-efficient ‎renovation and ‎sustainable ‎construction of ‎residential ‎buildingsFinancial stimulation (incentives) designed to ‎‎support the investment in energy renovation of ‎old buildings and construction of new with higher efficiency than the standard energy ‎efficient building. ‎ ‎highLink
Source: MURE

Transport

Overall transport energy demand in Slovenia has seen periods of dramatic growth and contraction between ‎‎2000 ‎and 2017, as transport activity is highly sensitive to economic growth. The amount of fuels sold in ‏Slovenia is also ‏‎very sensitive to transit transport and fuel prices. Road freight increased heavily resulting in increased share in ‎total consumption. The largest share of energy consumption belongs ‏to cars ( 65 %). 

Figure 7: Split of the transport energy consumption by mode

Source: ODYSSEE

Private cars remain the dominant mode of passenger transport, reflecting Slovenia’s dispersed ‎settlement ‎patterns and weak public transport. Despite improved implementation of measures to support ‏use of public ‎transport in the last years, the use of public transport in 2017 was much lower than in 2000. On the other hand, cycling is on increase, but statistical data are ‏lacking.

Figure 8: Share of transport modes in passenger traffic

Source: ODYSSEE

Freight transport is also dominated by road. Its share increased from 70% to 80%. Slovenia is export ‎oriented ‎country with good transport connections to EU countries and favourite geographic location also due ‏to port on ‎Adriatic Sea. Road infrastructure has been greatly improved in the past, while improvements in ‎rail infrastructure ‎have started to gain momentum in the recent years.

Figure 9: Share of modes in freight traffic

Source: ODYSSEE

Total transport energy use was 52 % higher in 2017 than in 2000. The highest energy use has been reached in 2008, being 70 % higher than in 2000. The most important driver of increase in energy use is activity growth of domestic ‏transport and‎ also the ‎increase in transit transport with EU enlargements, followed by increased share of ‏road transport compared to ‎other transport modes and other factors, mainly ‎behavioural i.e. load factor of vehicles. ‎‎Increased energy efficiency of passenger cars due to technological ‎improvements was the only factor that reduced ‎energy consumption.

Figure 10: Main drivers of the energy consumption variation in transport

Source: ODYSSEE

Support to public transport represents a very important policy package targeting to overturn negative trend ‎in the ‎last decade and increase its use. NECP puts focus on rail infrastructure and rail freight and passenger transport. The largest benefits on ‎energy efficiency are ‎expected from increased energy efficiency of vehicles, especially passenger cars, ‏through technological improvement ‎of vehicles with internal combustion engines and penetration of new ‎technologies especially electric vehicles. This is ‎supported by car taxation based on CO2 emissions, subsidies ‏for electric and hybrid vehicles, subsidies for charging ‎infrastructure, EU regulation on specific CO2 emission of cars and light duty ‎vehicles

Table 3: Policies and measures into force in the transport sector

MeasuresDescriptionExpected savings, impact evaluationMore information available
Promotion of public transportSubsidies for public transport, Integrated ticket and timetables for different means of public transport, subsidies for public transport infrastructureMediumLink
Sustainable ‎freight ‎transportThe aim of measures is to limit the growth of road ‎freight transit and ‎secure ‎a transition to rail freight ‎transport to the greatest possible extent. The ‎instruments ‎include: (1) financial incentives for the ‎establishment of intermodality and an increase in rail ‎‎freight transport, (2) fiscal instruments for road freight ‎transport‎MediumLink
Improvement of efficiency of passenger transportRegulation on labelling of cars and tyres, subsidies for low CO2 cars, educational activities, green public procurement, promotion of non-motorized forms of transportHighLink
Source: MURE

Industry

‎The total final energy consumption in industry in Slovenia has decreased ‎between 2000 and 2017 by 9%. ‎‎‎The share of total energy consumption of energy intensive ‎‎industrial ‎branches (primary metals, non-metallic minerals, paper, chemical) increased from 64% to 69% in the same period. ‎

Figure 11: Final energy consumption by branch

Source: ODYSSEE, steel including blast furnaces

The specific energy consumption of steel and paper production ‎decreased over ‎the period 2000-2017 by ‎‎2.5%/year and ‎‎2.1%/year respectively. ‎‎The specific energy consumption of paper industry strongly ‎‏decreased since 2006, because ‎the production of ‎cellulose was ‎stopped.  


Figure 12: Unit consumption of steel and pulp and paper(toe/t)

Source: ODYSSEE

Energy consumption in industry has decreased by 0.13 Mtoe between 2000 and 2017, mainly because of energy savings (by -‎‎0.51 Mtoe) from the successful implementation of energy measures, and ‎structure change (by -‎‎0.37 Mtoe), due to the stop of ‎some energy intensive ‎production (cellulose). On the other side the activity increase of (i.e. the growth in industrial production measured with physical production for energy-intensive products ‎and production index for others) contributed to increase consumption by 0.57 ‎Mtoe.

Figure 13: Main drivers of the energy consumption variation in industry

Source: ODYSSEE

Stimulation of energy efficiency in industry is set as one of the measures of Slovenian industrial policy for the ‎‎development and raising of the competitiveness in industry. A legal framework was adopted to ‎‎promote the ‎‎efficient use of energy for industrial enterprises under EU-ETS. Financial ‎incentives for industrial Non-ETS companies are included in NEEAP and ‎the ‎operational ‎program for reduction of GHG emission.‎ The implementation and improvement of NEEAP measures in industry will continue in the adopted NECP until 2030.

Table 4: Policies and measures into force in industry

MeasuresDescriptionExpected savings, impact evaluationMore information available
Efficient ‎electricity ‎consumptionStimulation of improvement of the ‎efficient use of electricity ‎in industry. ‎highLink
Energy ‎management ‎systems in ‎industryFinancial incentives to introduce ‎energy management ‎systems in ‎industrial companies: energy audits, ‎the implementation of energy ‎management ‎systems and preparation ‎of feasibility studies for investment in ‎energy efficiency and RES‎mediumLink
Source: MURE