Overview

Final energy consumption in Republic of Serbia in 2017 amounted to 8.8 Mtoe - 2% lower than in 2010. The households sector had the highest share in final energy consumption with 32%, followed by industry (29%), transport sector (25%), services (11%) and agriculture (2%). The share of industry and transport stayed almost constant in comparison to 2010, while residential sector dropped from 34% to 32%. In the same period the share of agriculture and services sectors slightly increased by 1%.

Figure 1: Final energy consumption by sector (normal climate)

Source: ODYSSEE

Energy efficiency measured by ODEX improved by 1% between 2010 and 2017. Progress was registered in residential sector (-0.2%/year).

Figure 2: Technical Energy Efficiency Index

Source: ODYSSEE

In the Republic of Serbia energy efficiency in area of final energy consumption and energy sources is regulated by two laws: Energy Law and the Efficient Use of Energy Law. Through these two laws the requirements of Directive 2006/32/EC about energy efficiency of final consumption and energy services have been transposed.

According to EU obligations Republic of Serbia has set a national indicative target of 9% for reducing final energy consumption by 2018 (0.7524 Mtoe). The Third National Energy Efficiency Action Plan for 2016-2018 (NEEAP) was approved by Government in late 2016. 3rd NEEAP was prepared in accordance with the requirements of Directive 2006/32/EC, but also included a number of elements concerning the future implementation of Directive 2012/27/EU.

On the basis of collected and processed data, it is estimated that, up to including 2015, realized savings amounted to 0.37 Mtoe, which is 93% of savings projected for the period 2010-2015, i.e. approximately 50% of the target to be reached by 2018. Estimated effects of measures (in 3rd NEEAP) indicated that it is possible to reach the comprehensive goal by 2018, but that it is necessary to additionally strengthen capacities for implementation of NEEAP, ensure investments into most cost-effective measures and implement by-laws.

Currently, the 4th NEEAP is under development and it will analyse the effects of the implementation of measures in the 3rd APEE. The 4th NEEAP will be the 1st National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency in accordance with the requirements of Directive 2012/27/EU.

Table 1: Sample of cross-cutting measures

MeasuresNEEAP measuresDescriptionExpected savings, impact evaluationMore information available
Billing based on actual (measured) DHS consumptionyesThe Law on Efficient Use of Energy (EUE) prescribes that technical prerequisite for the introduction of payment of actual consumption is the installation of heat consumption meters at substations for the entire building and wherever technically feasible, installation of individual consumption meters or heat cost allocators for individual parts of the building, as well as devices for controlled regulation on each radiator – partially implemented.-Link
Funding by ESCOyesThe Law on EUE contains provisions related to the companies providing energy services (ESCO). Special legislative acts have been drafted, as well as contract forms and guidelines for ESCO. A by-law (Rulebook) establishing the model of contracts between public and private partners in energy efficiency projects was adopted in May 2015 (ESCO By-Law).-Link
Ecodesign requirementsyesThe Law on EUE envisages that the products affecting energy consumption can be placed on the market only if they comply with the requirements of ecodesign, defined by specific technical regulations. This provision of the Law on EUE transposes the requirements of Directive 2009/125/EC establishing a framework for setting of ecodesign requirements for energy-related products - expected in the following period starting from 2021.-Link
Awareness of and education in energy efficiency yesRaising awareness of the energy efficiency is achieved through various information campaigns, trainings at different levels (including the introduction of relevant entities in the system of compulsory education, especially in vocational schools), organisation of seminars, workshops and lectures. It is essential to cover all target groups, in particular holders of responsible positions who are in charge of energy efficiency at all levels, as well as various social groups - partially implemented trough implementation of different projects.-Link
Mandatory consumer information on the monthly consumption of electricity and thermal energy or natural gasyesIn accordance of the Law on EUE, the companies engaged in distribution and supply of electricity and thermal energy and natural gas are obliged to inform customers once a month on the electricity bill or, along with the bill, on the amount of the energy consumed by the customer during the previous month and the average price of electricity for that particular consumer during that month. In addition, the information about available energy efficiency measures and other information relevant for rational use of energy are to be supplied.-Link
Source: MURE

Buildings

Residential energy consumption in 2017 in Republic of Serbia was 2.86 Mtoe, which is a 7% lower compared to 2010. Energy savings account for 0.05 Mtoe and tend to decrease the energy consumption. On the opposite, two main factors contributed to increase energy consumption – larger homes and climate (0.04 Mtoe each).

Figure 3: Main drivers of the energy consumption variation in households

Source: ODYSSEE

The energy consumption per employee decreased since 2010 with a rate of 0.7% per year on average (-5% over the period). The consumption of electricity decreased more slowly with a rate of 0.5% per year (-3% in total).

Figure 4: Energy and electricity consumption per employee (normal climate)

Source: ODYSSEE

Table 2: Sample of policies and measures implemented in the building sector

MeasuresDescriptionExpected savings, impact evaluationMore information available
Improvement of energy efficiency in the public, commercial and residential buildingsReduction of energy needs for heating and cooling by applying measures to the thermal envelope of the building and improving the thermo-technical system of the building.According to the NEEAP, final energy savings ammounted to 106 ktoe in 2018.Link
New construction regulations and certificates on the energy characteristics of buildingsAchieving energy savings in the construction of new buildings and reconstruction of existing buildings: - By applying new construction regulations defining the mandatory use of relevant standards (defining minimum criteria for the energy efficiency of buildings) - By drafting certificates on the energy properties of buildings. According to the NEEAP, final energy savings ammounted to 184 ktoe in 2018.Link
Source: MURE

Transport

Road transport is the main energy consumption source of transport sector, covering almost 92% of total consumption in 2017 (4% less compared to 2010). The share of rail transport slightly increased by 1% over the period, while share of air transport increased from 2% to 6%.

Figure 5: Split of the transport energy consumption by mode

Source: ODYSSEE

Cars represent around 74% of passenger traffic in 2017, followed by bus with 24% and only 2% for rail.

Figure 6: Share of transport modes in passenger traffic

Source: ODYSSEE

Road freight transport represents 55% of total freight traffic in 2017, a 27% increase since 2010. The share of freight traffic on rail decreased from 58% to 37% and water traffic decreased from 14% to 8% over the same period.

Figure 7: Share of modes in freight traffic

Source: ODYSSEE

Energy consumption of transport decreased by 1.3% from 2010 to 2017. The increasing traffic of passengers and goods was counterbalanced by “other effects”.

Figure 8: Main drivers of the energy consumption variation in transport (2000-2017)

Source: ODYSSEE

Table 3: Policies and measures into force in the transport sector

MeasuresDescriptionExpected savings, impact evaluationMore information available
Implementation of EC 443/2009 on the reduction of CO2 emissions of new passenger carsImplementation of stricter CO2 emission limits for new passenger cars improves their fuel consumption compared with the previous emission limit values. EURO 5 level has become a requirement for new passenger cars and light vans from 1 April 2011.2018: 2.51 PJLink
Source: MURE

Industry

Energy consumption of the industry sector accounted for 2.6 Mtoe for Republic of Serbia in 2017, a 1% decrease compared to 2010. Energy consumption of the industry is concentrated in four energy intensive branches: steel industries, chemicals, food and non-metallic. With a share of 22%, steel industry recorded the highest share of industry consumption in 2017, followed by chemical (18%), food (16%) and non-metallic industry (14%).

Figure 9: Final energy consumption by branch

Source: ODYSSEE

The slight decrease of industry's energy consumption over last years is mainly driven by change in structure and “other” effects (0.4 Mtoe). These effects were counterbalanced by change in industrial activity (0.38 Mtoe).

Figure 10: Main drivers of the energy consumption variation in industry

Source: ODYSSEE

Table 4: Policies and measures into force in industry

MeasuresDescriptionExpected savings, impact evaluationMore information available
Introduction of energy management systems in the industrial sectorMeasure is implemented in accordance with the Law on Efficient Use of Energy, in accordance with the saving targets set by the state bodies, through: 1) Collecting and analysing data on energy consumption, proposing measures and activities aimed at increasing EE, 2) Developing and delivering programmes and plans for efficient energy use to MME, 3) Implementing proposed measures and activities, 4) Preparing and submitting periodic reports to MME (on the energy consumption and the achieved savings), 5) Implementing mandatory periodic energy audits. The activity is carried out by energy manager who possesses the appropriate license in accordance with the Law on EUE.2018: 1.54 PJLink
Improvement of energy efficiency in the industrial sectorEnergy saving is achieved by applying EE measures in accordance with the recommendations of energy audit: 1) Collecting and analysing data on energy consumption, 2) Through implemented energy audits 3) Proposing measures and activities aimed at increasing EE 4) Implementing proposed measures and activities. Аchieved primarily on the basis of financial measures.2018: 3.04 PJLink
Source: MURE