Overview

In Greece  total final energy consumption decreased by almost 9% from 2000 to 2017. Transport remains the largest consuming sector holding 40% of the final energy use in 2017, showing a decrease of 7% in the period from 2000 to 2017. Residential sector is the second consuming sector holding 26% of the final energy use and it remained almost stable, showing a small increase of about 2%. Industry with a share of 18% of the final energy use in 2017, decreased by almost 31%, while services have a share of 13% of the final energy use and showed an increase of 67% (Figure 1).

Figure 1: Final energy consumption by sector (normal climate)

Source: ODYSSEE

Over the period 2000 to 2017 the energy efficiency of final consumers, as measured by ODEX indicator, improved by 32% (Figure 2). The largest improvement (i.e. decrease in ODEX) was registered by the transport sector with 38% (excluded air transport ), then by household with 31% and by industry with 30%, while services had the lowest improvement (4%). The implementation of measures together with the impact of the economic recession are the main reasons behind the decrease in the ODEX indicator. 

Figure 2: Technical Energy Efficiency Index

Source: ODYSSEE

Article 7 of the EED was brought in line with Article 9 of Law 4342/2015 (Government Gazette, Series I, No 143, 9.11.2015) regarding the energy efficiency obligation schemes. Paragraph 1 of this Article provides for the adoption of the energy efficiency obligation scheme from 1 January 2017, which ensures that energy distributors and/or retailers defined as obligated parties operating in the Greek territory will achieve a specific cumulative end-use energy savings target by 31 December 2020.

Table 1: Sample of cross-cutting measures

MeasuresNEEAP measuresDescriptionExpected savings, impact evaluationMore information available
Energy efficiency obligation schemesyesenergy distributors and/or retailers have an obligation to achieve end-use energy savings.Cumulative savings 2017-2020: 333ktoe
Source: MURE

Buildings

As shown in Figure 3 the energy consumption of space heating per m2 with climatic correction in Greece decreased by 30% in the period between 2000 and 2017 (from 9.9 koe/m2 in 2000 to 6.9 koe/m2 in 2017). This reduction in unit energy consumption is mainly due to the retrofitting of existing buildings, as well as due to behavioral changes (economic recession, energy poverty, etc). 

Figure 3: Energy consumption of space heating per m2

Source: ODYSSEE

Figure 4: Energy consumption per dwelling by end-use (except space heating)

Source: ODYSSEE

In Figure 4 it can be seen that specific consumption in all end uses increased. AC specific consumption is 4 times higher in 2017 compared to 2000 ( 0.0031koe/dw in 2000 and 0.012 koe/dw in 2017 ). There is also a high increase in specific consumption both of electric appliances and cooking by 49% and 43% respectively. Finally, water heating consumption per dwelling has only slightly increased by 6 % . 

Figure 5: Main drivers of the energy consumption variation in households

Source: ODYSSEE

Total final residential consumption was almost at the same level in 2017 as in 2000 (Figure 5). Although the number of occupied dwellings and appliances/ dwelling increased, energy savings (40%) offset their effect , which explains the quasi stability of the consumption . Energy savings can be attributed to the retrofitting of existing buildings and standards for new building and appliances but also to behavioral changes (economic recession, energy poverty, etc). 


Figure 6: Energy and electricity consumption per employee (normal climate)

Source: ODYSSEE

Energy efficiency improvement in the residential sector is a combination of regulatory measures for new buildings, that set more strict thermal insulation requirements and set minimum requirements for the efficiency of heating & cooling systems as well as for hot water production, and on the other hand support measures for retroffiting the existing building stock. The "Saving at home" programme is a national programme for residential sector, offering financial support for interventions in building envelope, heating/cooling systems, and installation of RES for domestic hot water production. It was first launched in 2011 and the type of financial support offered was a subsidy ranging from 15% to 70% based on income criteria, with a low-interest loan for the remaining investment. Basic requirement of the programme was the issuing of EPC before and after the interventions. 


Table 2: Sample of policies and measures implemented in the building sector

MeasuresDescriptionExpected savings, impact evaluationMore information available
‘Saving at home’ programmeThis programme was implemented in the period 2014-2016 and involved grants and low rate loan for energy efficiency interventions to 26,164 buildings.210.64 ktoe (cumulative 2014-2020)
Source: MURE

Transport

As for now on international aviation is exuded from final energy consumption , changes in the split of transport energy consumption by mode has occurred. Cars account for 42% of the transport 's consumption, followed by trucks &light vehicles with 37.6% share, water with 10% and air with 3.4% (Figure 7) . 

Figure 7: Split of the transport energy consumption by mode

Source: ODYSSEE

Cars represent 81.4% of passenger traffic in 2017, followed by bus with 16.4% and rail with only 2.2%. The share of cars increased almost by 13% in comparison to 2000, leading to a reduction in bus and rail transport by 34% and 36%, respectively (Figure 8). 

Figure 8: Share of transport modes in passenger traffic

Source: ODYSSEE

The breakdown of freight transport remained the same between year 2000 and 2017. Road freight transport is almost dominant with 98.5% share and only 1.5% accounts to rail freight transport (Figure 9). 

Figure 9: Share of modes in freight traffic

Source: ODYSSEE

Greece's total final energy consumption for transport decreased by 7% from 2000 to 2017. The increasing activity (by 30% for passenger traffic , from 88,776 pkm in 2000 to 125,143 pkm in 2017 ), contributed to an increase of 3.6 Mtoe, while the energy savings from the implementation of energy efficiency improvement measures, contributed to the decrease of transport sector final energy consumption by 3.7 Mtoe (Figure 10).

Figure 10: Main drivers of the energy consumption variation in transport

Source: ODYSSEE

The 4th NEEAP of Greece, published in 2017, provides a comprehensive overview of the progress made towards the EU 2020 targets and gives the measures implemented in transport sector. The development of energy efficiency improvement mechanisms, such as transport infrastructure projects and resharing of public transport system, as well as the establisment of regulations such as introduction of eco-driving in the training material for getting a driving licence and  the linking of vehicle taxation to energy efficiency and CO2 emissions, led to the achievement of energy saving (Figure 10). 


Table 3: Policies and measures into force in the transport sector

MeasuresDescriptionExpected savings, impact evaluationMore information available
Linking of vehicle taxation to energy efficiency and CO2 emissionsRegulation
Transport infrastructure projectsEnergy efficiency improvement mechanism
Source: MURE

Industry

The overall industrial energy consumption decreased by 44% between 2000 and 2017. All sectors decreased except for non-ferrous metals that remained almost constant. The industry sector was the main sector which sustained the effects of the economic recession in Greece.

Figure 11: Final energy consumption by branch

Source: ODYSSEE, steel including blast furnaces

Specific consumption of steel and paper shows a strong decreasing trend in the period from 2000 to 2017. In 2017, unit consumption index for paper production is 27.1 and for steel, it is 53.5, which means 73% and 46.5% lower in 2017 compared to 2000, respectively (Figure 12). 

Figure 12: Unit consumption of energy‐intensive products (toe/t)

Source: ODYSSEE

Greece's total final energy consumption for industry decreased by 44% from 2000 to 2017. Main drivers for this decrease are energy savings, and reduced activity. The majority of energy reduction is due to the energy savings resulting from the implementation of energy efficiency improvement measures, which contributed to decrease the final energy consumption of industry sector by 1.47 Mtoe (33% reduction -Figure 13). The reduced activity and structural changes have also contributed to reduce the industry’s final consumption by 1.2 and 0.41 Mtoe, respectively. “Others “correspond mainly to the “negative” savings due to inefficient operations in industry during the recession.

Figure 13: Main drivers of the energy consumption variation in industry

Source: ODYSSEE

The 4th NEEAP of Greece, published in 2017, gives the measures implemented in industry sector. The grant of business loans with favorable terms under the project "Innovative Entrepreneurship,  Supply Chain, Food, Drinks", as well as other Financial incentive, such as incentives for relocation of enterprises to , led to the achievement of energy saving (Table 4).

Table 4: Policies and measures into force in industry

MeasuresDescriptionExpected savings, impact evaluationMore information available
Innovative Entrepreneurship, Supply Chain, Food, DrinksBusiness loans with favourable terms
Relocation of enterprises to industrial-business zones and business parksFinancial incentives
Source: MURE