In 2017 total final energy consumption was at the same level as in 2000 (normal climate). Transport sector consumes the biggest share of this: its consumption has increased by 0.7%/year between 2000 and 2017, from 4.82 Mtoe to 5.46 Mtoe. The consumption of the residential sector, the second largest sector, remained almost unchanged during the period. The final consumption in industry and agriculture has decreased, respectively by 1.4%/year (from 2.96 Mtoe to 2.35 Mtoe) and by 1.6%/year (from 0.97 Mtoe to 0.74 Mtoe). In services (including non-specified) final energy consumption has increased by 0.5%/year from 1.95 Mtoe to 2.02 Mtoe. 

Figure 1: Final energy consumption by sector (normal climate)


Energy efficiency for final consumers, as shown by ODEX, improved by an average of 1.3%/year from 2000 to 2017 (or 20%). Most improvement has been registered in industry (2.1%/year or 30%) and residential (1.5%/year or 22%). For the services sectors gains are lower than 10% since 2000.

Figure 2: Technical Energy Efficiency Index (ODEX)


The Danish government has a clear ambition: Denmark should be independent of fossil fuels by 2050. A key element in fulfilling this target is energy efficiency, along with an increased use of renewable energy. Energy efficiency will reduce energy consumption and it is together with renewable energy and electrification an important element in a cost-effective strategy to meet the long-term objectives. The actual government has set an objective that renewable energy in 2030 shall cover 50 % of final energy consumption (EU definition).

Table 1: Sample of cross-cutting measures

MeasuresNEEAP measuresDescriptionExpected savings, impact evaluationMore information available
Danish energy efficiency obligation schemeyesAnnual saving target from 2016 to 2020 at 10.1 PJ, equal to 2.6 % of final energy consumption (excluding transport)It is expected that the obligated companies will meet the target. Not all the savings are eligible under article 7 in EEDLink
Energy taxes on all energy used for space heating and on electricity used in households, the public sector etc. yesThe taxes on energy increase the energy prices paid by the consumer, and gives better incentives to reduce energy consumptionThe taxes support other measures
Source: MURE


The energy consumption for heating per m2 (normal climate, water heating included) has decreased by 1.2%/year in 2000-2017 from 14.4 to 11.8 koe/m2. Over 2000-2007 the energy consumption remained fairly stable. From 2008 to 2013, the energy consumption per m2 decreased and was stable again since 2014. Figure 4 shows that electricity consumption for electrical appliances per dwelling has decreased slightly from 0.25 toe/dw in 2000 to 0.23 toe/dw in 2017. Cooking has decreased by around 22% over 2000-2017. The decrease is the result of more energy efficient appliances and lighting which more than outweigh the increased number of appliances.

Figure 3: Energy consumption of space heating per m2 (normal climate)


Figure 4: Electricity consumption by end-use per dwelling


Energy consumption for households has increased by 8% over the period 2000-2017. Two main drivers contributed to increase the energy consumption: more dwellings (0.5 Mtoe) and larger homes (0.5 Mtoe), while energy savings (1.2 Mtoe) decreased the energy consumption. 

Figure 5: Main drivers of the energy consumption variation in households


Energy consumption and electricity consumption per employee has decreased, by 10.7% and 8.2% respectively. Electricity consumption per employee was quite stable until 2010, then decreased. Total energy consumption per employee has decreased mainly since 2007. 

Figure 6: Energy and electricity consumption per employee (normal climate)


The policies and measures to promote energy efficiency in buildings are a combination of economic incentives –(taxes on energy), regulation (primarily the requirements in building codes both for new and existing buildings and energy certification of buildings) and information, training, etc. The energy efficiency obligation was also an important instrument to promote Investment for energy efficiency solutions in existing buildings.

Table 2: Sample of policies and measures implemented in the building sector

MeasuresDescriptionExpected savings, impact evaluationMore information available
Building code 2015The codes set an absolute target for energy consumption in new buildings. For existing buildings the codes have efficiency requirements which shall be met when a building is renovated.Link
Bedre BoligFocuses, among other things, on developing cooperation between home owners and financial institutions, enabling financial advisers to better advise their customers on the financing of energy improvement projects. This means that, in connection with the establishment of the scheme, a calculation program and a report format has been developed which gives the financial institutions a solid basis on which to assess the potential savings that could be made in a building and to facilitate the dialogue between home owner and bank.
Digital tools at SparEnergi.dkSparenergi.dk offers a number of digital tools which can help users to improve their energy efficiency. Examples can be found in the NEEAP 2017, page 21Link
Source: MURE


From 2000 to 2017 the share of cars in transport energy consumption has increased from 46% to 49% in 2017. Air transport represents 20% in 2017 (against 17% in 2000). The remaining is split between trucks and light vehicles (22%), rail (2%) and bus (4%) in 2017.

Figure 7: Split of the transport energy consumption by mode


The split of traffic between modes remains quite stable since 2000. Cars represent around 80% of the traffic of passengers. Transport of passenger by bus and rail both represents about 10% each.

Figure 8: Share of transport modes in passenger traffic


The share of transport of freight by road has decreased from 92% to 90% in 2017. On the opposite, the share of rail freight traffic has increased slightly in 2017 and represents 10% of the traffic (8% in 2000).

Figure 9: Share of modes in freight traffic


The energy consumption in the transport sector has increased from 4.82 Mtoe in 2000 to 5.46 Mtoe in 2017. The main drivers for the increase is more activity (e.g. more traffic), and some other effects (e.g. behavior, decrease in load factors for trucks etc). Energy savings counterbalanced the activity effect and contributed to decrease the energy consumption (0.75 Mtoe).

Figure 10: Main drivers of the energy consumption variation in transport


In Denmark, a number of initiatives have been taken to promote energy efficiency in the transport sector, among them, measures to improve energy efficiency in public transport, building of environmental zones in the bigger cities, mandatory refresher courses for professional drivers, which include ‘green driving’, and financial support for sustainable transport measures.

Table 3: Policies and measures into force in the transport sector

MeasuresDescriptionExpected savings, impact evaluationMore information available
Tax on fuelThe taxes on motor fuels, which are increasing the prices.
Environmental zones in bigger cities
Tax reduction for new cars with low fuel consumptionNew cars are highly taxed in Denmark. The taxes level are linked to the cars energy efficiency, but also to other factors.
Source: MURE


Energy consumption in industry has decreased significantly from 2000 to 2017, by about 21%. Energy consumption in non-metallic industry has decreased from 0.59 Mtoe in 2000 to 0.44 Mtoe in 2017.

Figure 11: Final energy consumption by branch

Source: ODYSSEE, steel including blast furnaces

The energy consumption per unit of energy-intensive products has decreased by 73.1% from 2000 to 2014. In 2015 and the years after, a decrease in production of paper and paper board was seen due to companies closed down production in Denmark.

Figure 12: Unit consumption of energy‐intensive products (toe/t)


The decreasing energy consumption in industry is mainly due to energy savings and less due to change of structure. In the opposite direction, activity and others have an increasing effect.

Figure 13: Main drivers of the energy consumption variation in industry


The main important instrument in industry are the energy efficiency obligation scheme, but the voluntary agreement schemes are also important.

Table 4: Policies and measures into force in industry

MeasuresDescriptionExpected savings, impact evaluationMore information available
Energy audits in large enterprisesMandatory energy audits for all large enterprises, requiring a screening of the entire energy consumption within the enterprise as well as a mapping of the saving potential. Link
Energy efficiency obligation schemeAbout 60 % of the reported savings are in private entreprises. Evaluations shows that it has had an important impact on the efficiency improvements
Voluntary agreement scheme for energy-intensive companiesIn order to take part in the scheme, the enterprises enter into a three-year agreement, which requires them to develop, implement and maintain an energy management system which is certified in accordance with the DS/EN ISO 50001 standard and the Danish Energy Agency's supplementary requirements for the energy management system. Link
Source: MURE