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The aim of this report is to understand why France has lower space heating energy performances than most other EU countries. This diagnosis resulted from a graph produced in the framework of the European Odyssee project that compares specific energy consumption of space heating (Figure 1). This chart includes several adjustments to take into account quantifiable differences between countries, in the energy mix, in the size of dwellings and in the outdoor climate. The comparison focuses on useful energy consumption of space heating (in order to correct differences in the energy mix and thus in efficiency), per m2 (to correct for differences in dwelling size) and degree-days (to correct for differences in climate).