Overview

In 2015, the final energy consumption in Norway was 19 Mtoe. The largest consuming sector was industry with 5.9 Mtoe, but the consumption has decreased by 17 % since 2000. The fastest growing sector is transport, and it is now almost as large as industry, with a consumption of 5.4 Mtoe in 2015. Energy consumption in transport has increased by 23% since 2000. The only other sector increasing is tertiary sector, with a consumption of 2.7 Mtoe in 2015. This is considerable more than in 2000, but the last years the consumption has been constant. The energy consumption in residential sector, was the same in 2015 as in 2000, 3.8 Mtoe.

Figure 1: Final energy consumption by sector (normal climate)

Source: ODYSSEE

Energy efficiency for final consumers, as measured by ODEX, improved by 19 % from 2000 to 2015. The largest improvements is observed in the residential sector, but most of it occurred in early 2000's. The development is influenced by the change in the statistical classification in 2008 and this has a particularly high impact on the service sector. 

Figure 2: Technical Energy Efficiency Index

Source: ODYSSEE

The government’s goal for energy efficiency is defined as an improvement of the energy intensity of 30% from 2015 to 2030. This is about the same as the improvement the last 15 years and the new goal is an improvement compared to the calculated development in energy efficiency in the base line of 25% from 2015 to 2030. The report from the Committee of Energy and the Environment request the government to appoint a goal of 10 TWh reduced energy consumption in existing buildings compared to the present level. It also points at the earlier agreement on new buildings from 2020 to be nearly-zero-energy-buildings. The report includes several measures to be included in the next transportation plan (“National Transportplan 2018-2029”) among others specific goal of number of low- and zero emission vehicles in 2025, support of a system of hydrogen filling stations, a plan for further increase of share biofuels in transport fuels and new biofuels. Use of oil for heating as base load in buildings will not be allowed after 2020, and the committee asks the government to evaluate if also the use of oil for peak load and use in district heating shall be included.

Table 1: Sample of cross-cutting measures

MeasuresNEEAP measuresDescriptionExpected savings, impact evaluationMore information available
Energy policy (Energimeldingen)yesThe Norwegian government want energy supply to be a foundation of continued growth and welfare. Four main priority areas are defined: 1. Strengthen the reliability of supply 2. Profitable renewable energy production 3. More efficient and environmental friendly use of energy 4. Business development and value added through efficient use of profitable renewable energy resources MediumLink
Source: MURE

Buildings

The energy consumption in buildings was in total about 6.5 Mtoe in 2015 (an increase of 10 % since 2000) . The household sector used 3.8 Mtoe and the tertiary sector used 2.7 Mtoe in 2015. The most important energy carrier in buildings is electricity; in 2015  82 % of the energy consumption in buildings was electricity. The electricity consumption increased from 2000 to 2015 by 8 % in the residential sector and by 19 % in the tertiary sector. The most fast growing energy carrier was the district heating, and it is now the second largest energy carrier in the tertiary sector. In household, biomass, mainly in the form of fire logs, is still the second largest energy carrier, but it has decreased the last years.

Figure 3: Energy consumption of residential per m2

Source: ODYSSEE

The final energy consumption of residential buildings was almost the same in 2015 as in 2000, about 3.8 Mtoe. Two main factors contributed to increase energy consumption over the period – more dwellings (by 0.7 Mtoe), and lifestyles (0.3 Mtoe for “larger homes”). Energy savings (1.3 Mtoe) more than offset the effect of the drivers of consumption growth. Due to lack of data on energy by end-use, the share of unexplained consumption is rather high, 0.5 Mtoe.

Figure 4: Main drivers of the energy consumption variation in households

Source: ODYSSEE

The energy consumption per employee increased the first years of the period, but a considerable decrease is observed from 2002 to 2008. The large decrease in 2008 is probably due to the low activity during the economic recession. The energy consumption per employee of the tertiary section shows a stabilization during the last years. The electricity consumption has decreased more than total energy consumption due to an increased use of district heating. Climate variations have an impact on both the indicators, since electricity is a major energy carrier used for space heating.

Figure 5: Energy and electricity consumption per employee (normal climate)

Source: ODYSSEE

Enova has a diversity of programs supporting energy efficiency measures in households and buildings. All building owners that are supported by any of Enova’s programmes for energy efficiency or conversion have to yearly report their energy use and other relevant information that may be of interest when analysing the energy use in buildings. This information is, e.g., general building data, technical installations, operational hours, etc. As from 2003 the reporting is to a web-based system. Enova publishes an annual report with energy statistics from the building network. The energy statistics offers a tool for building owners, consultants, authorities and others. Benchmarking figures may be used for comparison of buildings in different building groups as, e.g., schools, hospitals, offices etc.

Table 2: Sample of policies and measures implemented in the building sector

MeasuresDescriptionExpected savings, impact evaluationMore information available
Investment grants to energy efficiency in existing buildingsEnova support building owners investing in best available technology within energy saving solutions or change from fossil energy to renewable energy sources.Supported energy measures are for example energy saving measures, heating plant and conversion to water-borne heating systems, upgrading to passive or low energy standard. Typical investment grant is 20 % of the additional costs.Link
Energy measures for households (Enova)Enova's support programs directed to households is provided for different measures such as: energy advice, heat pumps, biomass boilers, solar collectors, central heating management systems, production of electricity, phase out of oil burner/ tank/stoveLink
Source: MURE

Transport

Cars account for 34 % of the sector's consumption and road freight for 32 % in 2015. Air and water transport represents 16% and 13%, respectively. The remaining is split among rail (1 %), bus (3 %) and motorcycles (1 %).  From 2000 to 2015 the share of road freight transport has increased most and the share of cars has decreased.

Figure 6: Split of the transport energy consumption by mode

Source: ODYSSEE

The share of car transport in passenger traffic show a small increase from 2000 to 2015 and the increased share taken from the bus traffic. The observed share of traffic by rail is slightly increasing.

Figure 7: Share of transport in passenger traffic

Source: ODYSSEE

The share of modes in freight traffic is the same in 2015 as it was in 2000. Freight is transported more than 7 times more on roads than on rail.

Figure 8: Share of modes in freight traffic

Source: ODYSSEE

Transport energy consumption has increased considerable due to a high growth in activity since 2000, calculated to 1.9 Mtoe from 2000 to 2015. More efficient transportation has made a major contribute to reducing energy consumption (0.8 Mtoe), as well as modal shifts to more efficient transport modes (0.5 Mtoe).

Figure 9: Main drivers of the energy consumption variation in transport

Source: ODYSSEE

Many measures in the transport sector in Norway are local measures like road pricing, reduced speed limits in specific areas due to environmental reasons, tax for use of studded tyres in city centre etc. The duties on petrol and diesel, as well as the registration tax on vehicles, are high. The purchase tax is correlated to CO2-emissions. Battery electric vehicles (BEV) have been introduced faster in Norway than in most other countries. This has been driven by several policies, introduced since 2001, such as the exemption from nonrecurring tax for vehicles, free parking and charging on public parking places, free drive in lanes for public transport and exemption from road toll. 

Table 3: Policies and measures into force in the transport sector

MeasuresDescriptionExpected savings, impact evaluationMore information available
Zero Emission VehiclesZero emission vehicles have no purchase tax and a very low annual vehicle duty. In addition other advantages exists, such as free parking, charging and free drive in bus lane.Medium
Enova's programs for the transport sectorInvestment support to energy and climate measuresMediumLink
Source: MURE

Industry

Final energy consumption of industry decreased significantly by in average 1.1% per year from 2000 to 2015. Most of the energy is used in energy intensive branches such as production of metals, chemicals, pulp & paper and non-metallic minerals. Less than 20% of final energy consumption is used in other industries.

Figure 10: Final energy consumption by branch

Source: ODYSSEE

The unit consumption of pulp & paper shows a major decrease the last years due to close down of a big pulp plant in 2013. In 2015, this branch use less than half of the energy used in 2000, due to several plant close downs in the period. The branch "steel" is in Norway mainly production of ferro-alloys, but this is also a part of chemical industry, which complicate the trend study.

Figure 11: Unit consumption of energy‐intensive products (toe/t)

Source: ODYSSEE

Since 2000, activity contributes to increase the industrial energy consumption by almost 1 Mtoe, while structure and energy savings contributed to decrease industrial energy consumption, by 1.8 Mtoe and 1.6 Mtoe respectively.

Figure 12: Main drivers of the energy consumption variation in industry

Source: ODYSSEE

Enova is working to boost the competitiveness of Norwegian industry through environmentally friendly and efficient energy use. Several support schemes are available:  introduction of energy management in industry and infrastructure, pre-project for energy measures in industry, to energy measures in industry,  to central heating systems, to pre-project new energy and climate technology in industry, to new energy and climate technology in industry, to introduction of new technology, to energy measures in infrastructure. 

Table 4: Policies and measures into force in industry

MeasuresDescriptionExpected savings, impact evaluationMore information available
Support for new energy and climate technology in industryThe goal of this programme is to increase the introduction of full-scale innovative energy and climate technology related to production processes. The target groups are production companies in Norway with innovative demonstration projects which introduce new energy and climate technology. The technology must contribute to effective use of energy, energy recovery, conversion from electricity and fossil sources to renewable energy sources, load saving or shifting, increase in energy production from renewables or reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases from production processes. Link
Support to energy and climate measures in industryInvestment support is given to e.g. - Energy efficiency: contribution to reduced energy use per produced unit - Utilization of surplus energy - Conversion from fossil sources or electricity to renewable sources - Climate measures that reduce CO2-emissions Link
Source: MURE