Overview

In 2015, the final energy consumption in Lithuania was about 5 Mtoe. The final energy consumption was increasing during the period 2000-2015 by 1.6% per annum. Transport, the largest consuming sector, recorded 8.2 percentage points increase in its share of total final energy consumption since 2000 – from 27% to 35.2% in 2015. Over the same period, the residential sector decreased by 7.6 percentage points (from 37.9% to 30.3%), services decreased by 0.2 percentage points – to 12.7%, while industry kept a steady share around 19.7%. The building sector, comprising residential and services sectors, accounted for 43.1% in 2015.

Figure 1: Final energy consumption by sector (normal climate)

Source: ODYSSEE

Energy efficiency for final consumers, as measured by ODEX, improved by an average of 2.1 % per year from 2000 to 2015 or 30 % over the period. The largest gains of energy efficiency progress were in the industry (6.2 % per year).  In the transport sector, the pace of energy efficiency improvements has been steady (1.5 % per year). In the residential sector, due to old building renovation process, energy efficiency improvements were almost 1% per year. In service sector, the energy efficiency improvements have been steady (0.4 % per year).

Figure 2: Technical Energy Efficiency Index

Source: ODYSSEE

Lithuania has adopted its Third National Energy Efficiency Action Plan (NEEAP), which sets an indicative national energy efficiency target of 740 ktoe of final energy for 2020. The energy saving measures are expected to save 13.75 TWh by the end of 2020. The National Energy Independence Strategy (NEIS) is the leading energy policy document setting the main strategical goals for Lithuanian energy sector development and their implementation directions up to 2050. In the area of energy efficiency, the NEIS and following energy policy aims at increasing energy consumption efficiency by 1.5% a year till 2020 and by 1.3% during 2020–2030. The NEIS determines that the highest energy consumption efficiency will be achieved in transport sector due to the upgrade of car park in the country, the shift towards use of modern and environment saving public transport, the promotion of investment into the environment saving transport. Potential energy savings are estimated to be 300 ktoe in transport sector by 2020. The energy saving potential is high in building sector. Energy consumption efficiency in public and household buildings will be increased by modernizing and renovating buildings. Every year 220 ktoe of energy will be saved due to the efficient use of heat and 70 ktoe of energy will be saved through the green public procurements and the use of energy efficiently consuming appliances

Table 1: Sample of cross-cutting measures

MeasuresNEEAP measuresDescriptionExpected savings, impact evaluationMore information available
Labelling of energy consumption-related productsyesThe measure aims at informing final consumers about the energy consuming products, thus enabling people to choose more energy-efficient devices.Low
Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (STR 2.09.02:2005)yesThe STR is applied when projecting, installing heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems in buildings and engineering constructions. It sets requirements for inside temperature, cleanness of air, relative humidity, heating appliances, air supply and removal, safety and reliability and energy savings.Low
Source: MURE

Buildings

In 2015, space heating accounted for 70.4% of the sector’s consumption, electrical appliances for 13.9%, water heating for 9.4% and cooking for 6.3%. Electrical appliances recorded a 5.1 percentage points increase since 2000 with a 0.3%/year trend, space heating consumption decrease by -0.2%/year over the same period (-2.3 percentage points). Energy consumption of cooking decreased as well by -0.2%/year (-3.9 percentage points). Energy consumption for water heating increased by 1.1 percentage points increase since 2000. In 2015, the total residential energy consumption was at the same level as in 2000.

Figure 3: Energy consumption of space heating per m2

Source: ODYSSEE

Figure 4: Energy consumption by end-use per dwelling

Source: ODYSSEE

The final energy consumption of residential buildings was almost at the same level in 2015 as in 2000 (about 1.36 Mtoe). On the one hand, one main factor contributed to increase energy consumption over the period – lifestyle (0.21 Mtoe for “larger homes”) and on another hand energy savings (0.24 Mtoe) contributed to decrease in energy consumption. These reasons explain the observed almost the same level in energy consumption.

Figure 5: Main drivers of the energy consumption variation in households

Source: ODYSSEE

The electricity consumption per employee is increasing by 2.9%/year since 2000 due to the growing number of new electrical appliances, such as IT devices, telecommunication devices as well as air conditioning. Such trend is observed not only in Lithuanian but almost in all EU countries. The total energy consumption per employee was increasing by 0.6%/year over the same period. 

Figure 6: Energy and electricity consumption per employee (normal climate)

Source: ODYSSEE

During 2005-2013, a building standard STR 2.05.01:2005 “Thermal Technique of Envelopes of the Buildings” was applied in Lithuania. It set higher normative requirements for heat losses of the buildings in comparison with the former standard STR 2.05.01:1999. Implementation of the building standard allowed decreasing energy consumption in the new constructed buildings by 15 – 20% in average compared to consumptions of buildings constructed according to the former standard. After the technical document STR 2.05.01:2005 “Thermal Technique of Envelopes of the Buildings” was started to be applied in 2005, totally 526.6 GWh of energy was saved till 2013. With the aim to increase energy efficiency further, Lithuania implements Programmes and measures in building sector. They are focused on upgrading multifamily buildings and public buildings like schools, universities, museums, libraries, cultural centers and prisons. For modernization of multifamily buildings soft loans are provided based on updated financing model. Financial resources from state and municipal budgets, EU Structural Funds are used to upgrade public buildings. It is planned that in the framework of the Programme for improvement of energy efficiency in public buildings 700 thousand m2 of public buildings will be renovated, from which 470 thousand m2 of state public buildings and 230 thousand m2 of municipality buildings till 2020. The upgrading of multifamily buildings is expected to result in energy savings of 1000 GWh in 2020 and modernization of public buildings - in additional energy savings of 250 GWh in 2020.

Table 2: Sample of policies and measures implemented in the building sector

MeasuresDescriptionExpected savings, impact evaluationMore information available
Thermal Technique of Envelopes of the Buildings 2005-2013The building standard regulates the thermal technical designing of building enclosures (thermal insulation) in the buildings where the temperature inside during the heating season is kept higher than outside.High
Programme for Improving Energy Efficiency in Public BuildingsThe aim is to increase the energy efficiency in public buildings by renovating public buildings which are owned by state and municipalitiesHigh
Programme for the renovation/upgrading of multi-apartment buildingsProgramme supports energy efficiency increasing measures, such as reconstruction and change of heat and hot water supply systems; installation of equipment using renewable energy sources; improvement of heat isolation of pipework; reconstruction of ventilation system; roof, walls insulation; change of outside doors, windows; modernization of elevators; reconstruction of other engineering systemsMedium
EU Structural funds for 2007–2013 (Promotion of Modernization of Multifamily Houses)The aim is to promote the owners of multifamily houses to modernize energy inefficient buildings. Measure "Promotion of Modernization of Multifamily Houses" supports diffusion of information regarding modernization of multifamily houses; informing and consultation of owners of multifamily houses; preparation of typical projects; monitoring of results of implemented projectsMedium
Source: MURE

Transport

In 2015, road account of 92% of the sector’s energy consumption. Air transport represents  5% (against 2.5% in 2000). The remaining is split among rail (3%) and inland water (0.3%).

Figure 7: Split of the transport energy consumption by mode

Source: ODYSSEE

Cars represent almost 90% of passenger traffic in 2015, against 10% for bus and 1.3% for rail. The traffic of passengers is slightly decreasing since 2000 (-0.3%/year). This decrease was mainly observed in public transportation by rail (-3.3%/year) and cars (-0.4%/year). The traffic by buses (0.5%/year) and air transport (5.4%/year) are increasing.

Figure 8: Share of transport in passenger traffic

Source: ODYSSEE

On the contrary, the traffic of good (measured in tonne-kilometre) has been increasing rapidly by 5.7%/year, with significant increase in road traffic (8.0%/year) and rail traffic (2.9%/year). In 2015, road traffic accounted about 65% and rail traffic 35% in freight transportation structure.

Figure 9: Share of modes in freight traffic

Source: ODYSSEE

The final energy consumption in transport sector was 0.8 Mtoe higher in 2015 than in 2000. This trend is due to the facts that energy savings (around 0.32 Mtoe) balanced the effect of the growth in freight transportation (almost 0.4 Mtoe), but model shift (0.12 Mtoe) and other effects (0.48 Mtoe) has impact on the final energy consumption increase.

Figure 10: Main drivers of the energy consumption variation in transport

Source: ODYSSEE

In transport sector measures are focused on development of road infrastructure, upgrading of public transport parks and informational/educational purposes like ecological driving or a day without car. EU Structural funds, State budget funds and financial resources from Special Programme for Climate Change are used.

Table 3: Policies and measures into force in the transport sector

MeasuresDescriptionExpected savings, impact evaluationMore information available
EU Structural Funds 2007-2013: Comprehensive development of ecological public transportThe aim is to comprehensively modernize the system of public transport services in order to reduce air pollution, ensure a more efficient transportation of urban residents, promote workforce mobility, reduce traffic congestion, enhance traffic safety, and ensure high-quality public transportation services.Low
Public Technical Inspection of VehiclesThe aim of the measure is to inspect transport vehicles seeking to ensure that only technical and environmental requirements satisfying vehicles are exploited in the country.Low
Programme for improvement of road maintenance and developmentThe aim is to develop and upgrade the road network. Resources under the funding programme are used to design, construct, lay, upgrade, repair, inventory and provide maintenance for roads, bridges, overpasses, overhead roads, tunnels and industrial-service road buildings, to acquire road engineering, technological, transportation and other industrial facilities, to conduct road and bridge studies and carry out State supervision of compliance with special construction requirements, to create road information systems, to develop the road infrastructure, to implement traffic safety programmes and their measures, and to provide funding for other needs in the road sector.Low
Source: MURE

Industry

The final energy consumption of industry increased significantly by 1.4%/year. The most important energy consumer is the chemical industry in Lithuania. The share of the chemical industry increased importantly, i.e. from 20.7% in 2000 to 36.8% in 2015. The share of the other energy-intensive branches (non-ferrous metals, non-metallic minerals, pulp and paper) decreased in comparison to the 2000.

Figure 11: Final energy consumption by branch

Source: ODYSSEE

Introduction of advanced innovative technologies enabled significant decrease of the unit consumption of pulp and paper by 4.6%/year since 2000. Among the energy intensive branches pulp and paper industry reached the most important energy efficiency gains.

Figure 12: Unit consumption of energy‐intensive products (toe/t)

Source: ODYSSEE

Currently the industry sector represented 14% of the final energy consumption in Lithuania. The final energy consumption in industry was 0.21 Mtoe higher in 2015 than in 2000. The economy growth (1.1 Mtoe) and structural changes (0.34 Mtoe) are not fully offset by energy savings (1.04 Mtoe) and other effects (0.19 Mtoe).

Figure 13: Main drivers of the energy consumption variation in industry

Source: ODYSSEE

The Lithuanian policy in terms of energy efficiency in the industrial sector focuses on the financial incentive measures for energy efficiency investment, CHP investment, investments in clean fuels and capacities (renewables and waste). Investment subsidies and partial compensation of interest for energy efficiency and renewable energy projects are provided through EU Structural Funds, Lithuanian Environment Investment Fund and Special Programme for Climate Change. The financial resources are oriented towards improvement of energy production efficiency by providing support for more efficient cogeneration and heat supply systems. 

Table 4: Policies and measures into force in industry

MeasuresDescriptionExpected savings, impact evaluationMore information available
EU Structural funds for 2014–2020Measure promotes the implementation of production capacities, which use renewable energy sources (RES), the development of new efficient RES technologies and their implementation in industry in order to use this energy for internal needs and sell extra RES energy to district heating networks or other industrial enterprises.N/A
Special Programme for Climate Change: Energy efficiency improvement in industryTwo measures are approved, which aim at decreasing greenhouse gas emissions in the country. They are: "Improvement of efficiency of energy consumption and production" in various sectors of national economy, including industry; "Promotion of use of renewable energy sources, installation of environmental-friendly technologies, including high-efficient cogeneration in households and entities performing commercial activities".High
Structural funds for more efficient cogeneration and heat supply systemsThe measure aims at implementing advanced and efficient energy production technologies and increase the efficiency of energy production by providing grantsMedium
Lithuanian Environmental Investment Fund The measure aims at providing subsidies to finance the investment projects with environmental benefits and projects contributing to improvement of energy efficiencyLow
Source: MURE