Overview

In 2015, the final energy consumption in Romania was close to 22 Mtoe, with 7.2% smaller than the final energy consumption in 2000. The residential sector, the largest consuming sector, recorded 6% decrease in its share of the total final energy consumption since 2000 – from 42 % to 36 %. The second largest consumer, industry recorded 11% decrease in its share of total final energy consumption, from 38% to 27%. From 2000 to 2015, the services and transport sectors had the same evolution. The share in the total energy consumption increases with 6% and 11%. In 2015 the consumption in agriculture was slightly above its 2000 level, 15 %.

Figure 1: Final energy consumption by sector (normal climate)

Source: ODYSSEE

Energy efficiency for final consumers, as measured by ODEX, improved by an average of 2,5%/year. In industry and residential sectors, the pace of energy efficiency improvements has been steady (3.3 %/year for industry and 3.2%/year for residential). In the residential sector, this trend can be explained by the introduction of the regulations affecting appliances and buildings.The transport had a rapid progress with 6,1% /year in the 2000-2006, and a stability afterwards.  The services sector did not have a real progress and ODEX had a constant and invariable value. 

Figure 2: Technical Energy Efficiency Index

Source: ODYSSEE

According to EU obligations Romania has set a national indicative target of 19% for reducing energy consumption by 2020. The National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency-III for 2014-2020 was approved by GD122/2015. It provide measures similar to those included in the previous plans.

Romania’s indicative energy efficiency target is to achieve primary energy savings of 10 Mtoe by 2020. The envisioned 19% reduction corresponds approximately to a target of 42.99 Mtoe primary energy consumption and 30.32 Mtoe of final energy consumption.

The Law on Energy Efficiency no. 121/2014 transpose EU Directive 27/2012 on Energy Efficiency into national legislation. The main purpose of the law is to establish a coherent legislative framework for the development and implementation of national energy efficiency policy in order to achieve the national target. The Romanian  Energy Regulatory Authority (ANRE) is responsible for transposing the provisions of this law into secondary legislation. Accordingly to that, ANRE established the Department for Energy Efficiency within ANRE (order no. 95/2014).

Primary energy in 2012 was 34.8 Mtoe 20% lower than the 2020 target, the final energy consumption was  25% lower than the target. This indicate that the measures of the NEEAPs contributed to reductions of primary and final energy consumption. 

Table 1: Sample of cross-cutting measures

MeasuresNEEAP measuresDescriptionExpected savings, impact evaluationMore information available
Promotion of high efficiency cogenerationyesPromotion of high efficiency cogeneration represents a key measure in reducing primary energy consumption. Cogeneration was largely promoted in Romania during the period of centralized economy with the technology and equipment available in those times. Systems of large district heating were accomplished in many of the cities in the country in order to feed the blocks of flats with heat. At present most of them are highly worn. The Romanian Energy Regulatory Authority (ANRE) issued the secondary legislation necessary to apply this document. As a consequence, Romania effectively applies the support scheme that foresees bonuses for the electricity produced in these plants. In the same time, Romania promotes producing electric power from renewable sources of energy (including biomass) by applying the mechanism of the mandatory quotas combined with the transaction of the green certificates. Those who generate electric power from biomass within high efficiency cogeneration plants may select one of the two support schemes mentioned above. MediumLink
EU-related: Energy End-use Efficiency and Energy Services ESD (Directive 2006/32/EC) - Law on Energy Efficiency UseyesEnergy Efficiency Law no. 121 was published in the Official Gazette dated 1 August 2014. Until 2020, the new law requires a national mobilization for achieving the target of reducing energy consumption by 20%. National policy for energy efficiency is part of the energy policy of the state, and improving energy efficiency is considered a strategic objective because of the major contribution to the achievement of security of supply, sustainability and competitiveness of energy savings and reduction of GSG. This is one of ANRE`s responsibilities, through the Energy Efficiency Department, coordinated by a vice-President of ANRE.HighLink
Information campaigns regarding improvement energy efficiencyyesANRE has a key role in informing and motivating consumers and concerns itself with focusing energy consumers on necessities and possibilities to reduce the energy consumption. Since November 2014, based on Energy Efficiency Law no. 121/2014, an Office for consumers’ information and motivation shall operate within ANRE, and its main purpose shall be to develop consumers’ information, motivation and awareness programs, that will lead to using energy efficiency technologies and reducing final users’ energy consumption. Consumers’ information programs are vital in order to efficiently implement policies and measures using proper technical and financial resources. Promotion on ANRE web page, publications, workshops, seminars all around the country, within all the territorial offices of ANRE, webinar for all involved factors shall be the main tools of this office. Case studies related to energy efficiency projects, the results of some projects cofinanced by the Intelligent Energy Europe Program were, are and shall be disseminated on ANRE web page and within meetings with consumers. MediumLink
Source: MURE

Buildings

In the 2000-2015 period, energy consumption of residential per dwelling decreased from 1.4 to 0.37 koe/dw, which means 1.76 %/ year. The decrease rate was higher in the first year by 16%. This trend can be explained by the increasing sales of energy-efficient equipment and increasing of the number of dwellings after 2000. 

In 2000-2011 period, energy consumption of space heating per m2 decreased by 40.6%. The drop rate was high, namely 3.7 koe/year. 

This variation is due to the increase in the number of temporarily inhabited holiday homes and to the energy efficiency measures implemented through the renovation of the old dwellings.

Figure 3: Energy consumption of space heating per m2

Source: ODYSSEE

In 2000, on average, 53% of the total energy consumed in the home accounted for cooking, 33% for water heating and 14% for electrical appliances.

The consumption of electrical appliances relative to the number of dwellings has been increasing with 45.5%, this is explained by the increasing of number of electrical appliances.  The energy consumption for cooking relative to the number of dwellings was constant in the same period, 0.3 toe/dw.

Figure 5: Main drivers of the energy consumption variation in households

Source: ODYSSEE

The final energy consumption of residential buildings was lower by 2.05 Mtoe in 2015 than in 2000.

Two main factors contributed to the increase energy consumption over the period – more dwellings (by 0.58 Mtoe), lifestyle (3.1 Mtoe - “larger homes”)

The energy savings (4.31 Mtoe) explain the drop of the final energy consumption offsetting growth.

Figure 6: Energy and electricity consumption per employee (normal climate)

Source: ODYSSEE

Table 2: Sample of policies and measures implemented in the building sector

MeasuresDescriptionExpected savings, impact evaluationMore information available
Energy Performance of Buildings (Directive 2002/91/EC) - Energy Performance of existing Buildings-obligatory energy efficiency certificatesFor the first step, the owner must find an energy auditor than can be legal entity or independent person. The role of energy auditor is to make a technical building expertise and to prepare a energy report of building. Technical expertise consists of the measurement of areas of the building, control building envelope, examination of bills and more. The price of certificate for energy varies depending on the building area, 1-4 Euro/m2 . Also, the price will decrease if the surface is repeatable, such as apartment or those who have several properties. Without this certificate buildings can not be built, sold or rented.MediumLink
Revised Directive for Labelling of Energy-related Products (Directive 2010/30/EU) - Energy efficiency improvement of heating-cooling systems on individual housingThe measure fully transposes into the Romanian legislation the Commission Directive 2002/31/EC implementing Council Directive 92/75/EEC with regard to energy labelling of household air-conditioners. The Government adopted the Decision 407/2003 on establishing the energy labelling and energy efficiency requirements for introducing on the market the household air-conditioners that entered in force in April 2004. The Government Decision 407/2003 was replaced by the Government Decision 1871/2005 in order to meet further amendments of the Commission Directive 2002/31/EC, including also provisions regarding the noise requirements, as well as the Romanian standards adopted in line with the European standards.MediumLink
Energy Performance of Buildings (Directive 2002/91/EC) - New Buildings-building codeAccording to the provisions of the law an energy performance certificate is mandatory to be issued starting with 1st January 2007, both for new buildings and existing ones, excepting the existing residential houses and blocks of flats for which the energy performance certificate will be mandatory when they are sold or rented out, starting with 1st January 2010. The validity of the certificate is 10 years. Regarding the inspection of boilers and technical expertise of the thermal plants and heating installations, the law establishes the followings:  a regular inspection every five years for the boilers fired by non-renewable liquid or solid fuel of a rated out-put of 20 kW to 100 kW. Such inspection is also applied to boilers using other fuels.  an inspection at least every two years for the boilers with a rated out-put exceeding 100 kW; for the gas boilers this period can be extended to 4 years  technical expertise of the heating installations equipped with boilers of a rated out-put exceeding 20 kW which are older than 15 years. As regards the inspection of air-conditioning systems the law establishes a regular inspection every five years for the air-conditioning systems of a rated-out of more than 12 kW. This inspection shall include an assessment of the air-conditioning efficiency and the sizing compared to the cooling requirements of the building. The users will be advised on possible improvement or replacement of the air-conditioning system and on alternative solutions. The energy audit and the certification of the buildings are provided by energy auditors for buildings authorized according to the legislation requirements. The expertise of the heating and air-conditioning systems are developed by technical experts accredited according to the legislation requirements.MediumLink
Energy Performance of Buildings EPBD Recast (Directive 2010/31/EU) - Programs for thermal rehabilitation of the multi-level and single family residential buildings built-up 1950-1990The Government adopted in 2002 the Government Emergency Ordinance 174/2002 regarding the establishment of special measures for thermal rehabilitation of some multi-level residential buildings, which was approved by the Law 211/2003, further amended and modified by the Law 260/2006. The GUO 174/2002 establishes special measures for the thermal rehabilitation of some blocks of flats (condominiums) that were built during the period 1950-1990 in order to increase the energy performance of these buildings. The blocks of flats - condominiums that are going to be rehabilitated are included in the annual thermal rehabilitation action programs developed by the Ministry of Development, Public Works and Housing on the basis of the proposals submitted by the municipalities taking into account the eligibility criteria and the main criteria established by the law.MediumLink
Source: MURE

Transport

In 2000, the cars account for 35.4% of the sector’s energy consumption and road freight transport for 34.5%. The air transport represents 4.5%. The remaining is split among rail (10.7%), bus (11.2%), motorcycles (0.3%), and inland waterways (3.4%).

Figure 7: Split of the transport energy consumption by mode

Source: ODYSSEE

Car transport has developed over time in cities and between the  cities to the detriment of bus and rail transport. The traffic of passengers in 2000 was 66.8% with cars, rail 23% and bus 10.1% of total.  Rail transport remains low due to underdeveloped infrastructure.

Figure 8: Share of transport in passenger traffic

Source: ODYSSEE

The freight traffic has been increasing by 6.5%/year by increasing the traffic on road and the freight traffic in rivers and decreasing the freight traffic in trains

A significant decrease in rail traffic of goods (-1.89%/year), led to a higher share of road in the total traffic 16.3% (+1.09%/year) and a higher share of water in the total 12.1% (+0.81%/year).  

Figure 9: Share of modes in freight traffic

Source: ODYSSEE

The transport energy consumption was only higher in 2015 than in 2000 with 1.98 Mtoe. This trend is due to the fact that energy savings (2.73 Mtoe) balanced the effect of the growth in traffic of passengers (+2.71 Mtoe) and other effects (0.84 Mtoe), mainly the decrease in load factors for the transport of goods with the economic crisis (trucks less loaded with an increase in empty running).

Figure 10: Main drivers of the energy consumption variation in transport

Source: ODYSSEE

The transport sector was in a less favorable position regarding energy efficiency. In comparison with the base year 2000, the ODEX indicator was 101% in 2011. Compared to the peak year 2005 the index was again falling by 7% with a further downward trend in the following years. Energy intensity for transport sector remained almost the same, with a decrease of 0.4%.

The energy consumption increased by 60% in 2015 compared to 2000. The highest share was recorded in road transport. It consumed 5.07Mtoe in 2015 meaning 95% from total. To achieve the 2020 targets several programs are running to modernize the road and the rail infrastructures and to greater use of collective transport and the increase in rail and inland waterways for freight transport.

Table 3: Policies and measures into force in the transport sector

MeasuresDescriptionExpected savings, impact evaluationMore information available
Modernization of rail transport Starting from the international context, the main scope of the strategy of the National Railway Companies “CFR”-SA is to ensure the safe operation and development of the infrastructure it manages according to the evolutions in European Union railway and the national market development, so that to attract and sustain more freight and passengers. CFR states strategically the access of all railway actors to a functional, ecological infrastructure, on which passengers and freight travel safely, under any circumstances, day and night, at competition costs and according to the established time tables. The National Railway Companies “CFR”-SA permanently acts in order to an efficient use of its resources and decrease of public subsidies. The key strategy objectives for the main activity sectors, as well as strategy actions (action lines) arisen from these shortterm, medium-term and long-term objectives consists with the political framework defined by the White Charta of Transport – Road map for an European Unique space of transport – Toward a competitive and resources effective transport system published by the European Commission in 2011 and also with European financing programs 2007-2013 and 2014-2020, which create the context of a solid commitment for Last update: 15 September 2014 international finance for the projects for modernizing the infrastructure developed by „CFR”-SA.HighLink
Emission performance standards new passenger cars (Regulation 443/2009/EC) - Pollution tax for motor vehiclesGeneral description – The legislative package was constituted in order to enhance the quality of air, as well as observing the obligations Romania has regarding reaching the national targets on decreasing the greenhouse gases emissions. The legislation Government Emergency Ordinance no. 50/2008 establishes the legal framework for pollution tax for light vehicles, emissions deriving from light passenger vehicles and light goods vehicles. It is applied by the meaning of the National Agency for Fiscal Administration. MediumLink
Promotion of Biofuels or other Renewable Fuels for Transport (Directive 2003/30/EC) - Promotion of the use of bio-fuels for transport According to Government Decision No 1844/2005 (which fully transposes the provisions of Directive 2003/30/EC) regarding the promotion of biofuels and other renewable fuels for use in transport, a minimum of 5.75% of biofuels or other renewable fuels should be in use by 2010. This will be calculated on the basis of the energy content of all types of petrol and diesel used in transport. Government Decision No 456/2007, which amends and updates Government Decision No 1844/2005, foresees the gradual introduction of a minimum percentage of biofuel content in conventional fuels.  Exemption from excise of energy products (article 201 paragraph l – Fiscal Code).  Special Government Ordinance No 125/2006 for the approval of direct and indirect national complimentary subsidies to agriculture starting from 2007. Approved with ammendaments and extensions through Law No 139/2007. HighLink
Source: MURE

Industry

The industrial sector has reduced its activity and implemented measures that have led to a decrease of 28.6% of the final energy consumption to 6.44 Mtoe. For paper industry the rate of decline was maxim 3.9%/year. The branches of the steel and non-metallic recorded the lowest drop rate 1,7%/year.

Figure 11: Final energy consumption by branch

Source: ODYSSEE

During the analyzed period, the unit consumption of energy‐intensive products for steel varied slowly, remaining almost constant +0.03%/year. For paper, the rate of decline was 4.6% /year to 31.3 in 2015. This trend is due to the energy efficiency measures implemented in the sector as well as the change of the old technologies with some of high technology.

Figure 12: Unit consumption of energy‐intensive products (toe/t)

Source: ODYSSEE

Since 2000, most factors contributed to a decrease in industrial energy consumption (-2.58 Mtoe). Structural changes (-4.31 Mtoe) was partly offset by effects of the increase of activity (4.09 Mtoe).  

The energy savings (-4.28 Mtoe) and the structural changes explain the observed decrease in energy consumption. Energy savings have had a much greater impact because of a higher renewal rate of equipment and efficient operations by application of the energy efficienci legislation. 

Figure 13: Main drivers of the energy consumption variation in industry

Source: ODYSSEE

The industrial sector is responsible for 29.4 % of the total energy consumption in Romania . Since 2007, the industrial recession did not have an important effect on industrial energy consumption in Romania. The energy intensity of the Romanian industry decreased by approximately 42% between 2007 and 2015, as a result of the measures taken to increase energy efficiency by applying the requirements of the Energy Eficiency Law, and of the restructuring that took place during the period. 


Table 4: Policies and measures into force in industry

MeasuresDescriptionExpected savings, impact evaluationMore information available
Improvement of energy efficiency in industrial operators through the implementation of investment projects co-financed by community fundsThe increase of energy efficiency and security of supply, within the context of climate change/intervention major domain 1 – Efficient and sustainable energy (enhancement of energy efficiency and sustainable development of energy system from environment point of view) financial sustains:  Investments in installations and equipment for industry that lead to energy savings;  Modernization of electric power, natural gas and oil transportation grids, as well as the electric power and natural gas distribution grids in order to reduce the grid losses and to accomplish safely transportation and distribution services;  Investments in heating gas desulphurization installations, burners and filters for big burner installations from modern units/rehabilitated.HighLink
Grant-supported credit line for Romania that has been established by the European Commission and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development.EBRD and OTP Bank promote energy efficiency in Romania’s industry’ EEFF - the EU EBRD Energy Efficiency Finance Facility - is a grant-supported financing line for Romania from the European Commission and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. Private sector companies in Romania may identify and finance energy efficiency investment opportunities using: 1. Free expert technical consultancy to plan an energy efficiency investment; 2. Loans of up to 2.5 million EUR per company from participating banks to finance the investment; 3. 15% EU grants - up to 375,000 EUR per grant - when the investment is complete. The EBRD continues to support private industrial companies in Romania in their drive to improve energy efficiency with a new €10 million loan to OTP Bank Romania to finance sustainable energy projects undertaken by local businesses. HighLink
The improvement of energy efficiency in industrial operators through the management of demand for energy and the drawing up of energy balance sheetsIn order to accomplish the national efficiency energy policy, new provisions of the Law no.160 / 2016 amending and supplementing Law 121/2014 on energy efficiency, enterprises registering an annual energy consumption higher than 1,000 toe/year are obliged to carry out, every four years, an energy audit on an energy consumption contour set by the enterprise, representing at least 50% of its total energy consumption; the audit is prepared by an authorized natural or legal person, according to the existing law and represents the basis for determining and applying the measures to increase energy efficiency. SMEs, are obliged to carry out an energy audit every four years on a representative energy consumption contour, selected by the enterprise. To ensure the quality of energy audits, for any end user, the Energy Efficiency Department issues the minimum criteria for energy audits based on the requirements set out in Annex. 4 of the energy efficiency law, as well as a regulation on certification of energy managers and authorization of energy auditors, except for building energy auditors. Enterprises who after the entry into force of this law, are implementing an energy or environmental system certified by a certification body agreed by a national accreditation body are exempted from carrying out an energy audit every four years, provided that the enterprise proves that the certification and recertification of the management system has been mage based on an energy audit developed under the current law.MediumLink
Source: MURE