Overview

In Greece  total final energy consumption decreased by almost 10% from 2000 to 2015. Transport remains the largest consuming sector holding 39% of the final energy use in 2015, showing a decrease of 10% in the period from 2000 to 2015. Residential sector is the second consuming sector holding 28% of the final energy use and it remained almost stable, showing a small increase of about 4%. Industry with a share of 18% of the final energy use in 2015, decreased by almost 31%, while services have a share of 14% of the final energy use and showed an increase of 72% (Figure 1).

Figure 1: Final energy consumption by sector (normal climate)

Source: ODYSSEE

Over the period 2000 to 2015 the energy efficiency for final consumers as measured by ODEX indicator,  improved by 33% (Figure 2). The larger decrease was registered to transport sector with a decrease of 40% over the period, then to industry with a decrease of 29% and to household with a decrease of 28%. The implementation of measures together with the impact of the economic recession are the main reasons behind the decrease in the ODEX indicator. 

Figure 2: Technical Energy Efficiency Index

Source: ODYSSEE

Article 7 of the EED was brought in line with Article 9 of Law 4342/2015 (Government Gazette, Series I, No 143, 9.11.2015) regarding the energy efficiency obligation schemes. Paragraph 1 of this Article provides for the adoption of the energy efficiency obligation scheme from 1 January 2017, which ensures that energy distributors and/or retailers defined as obligated parties operating in the Greek territory will achieve a specific cumulative end-use energy savings target by 31 December 2020.

Table 1: Sample of cross-cutting measures

MeasuresNEEAP measuresDescriptionExpected savings, impact evaluationMore information available
Energy efficiency obligation schemesyesenergy distributors and/or retailers have an obligation to achieve end-use energy savings.Cumulative savings 2017-2020: 333ktoe
Source: MURE

Buildings

As shown in Figure 3 the energy consumption of space heating per m2 in Greece decreased by 19% in the period between 2000 and 2015 (from 9.8 koe/m2 in 2000 to 8 koe/m2 in 2015). In Figure 4 it can be seen that water heating consumption per dwelling was slightly decreased by 11%, while the consumption for electrical appliances and cooking was slightly increased. An important increase shows the consumption for AC per dwelling, which was 0.0031koe/m2 in 2000 and increased to 0.098 koe/m2 in 2015.

Figure 3: Energy consumption of space heating per m2

Source: ODYSSEE

Figure 4: Energy consumption by end-use per dwelling

Source: ODYSSEE

Total final residential consumption was almost constant between 2000 and 2015, showing a slightly decreased of 2%. In that period the number of occupied dwellings increased by 15% and there was also a slight increase due to larger homes and more appliances per dwelling (4% and 2% respectively). On the other hand, energy savings lead to a 31% decrease of the consumption or to a decrease of 1,4Mtoe. Energy savings can be attributed to the retrofitting of existing buildings  and  technical improvements standards of the new ones, but also to behavioural changes due to the economic recession as well as energy poverty. 

Figure 5: Main drivers of the energy consumption variation in households

Source: ODYSSEE

The overall trend of the energy consumption per employee in the period 2000 to 2015 is increasing, with a sharp decrease in 2010-2011 due to the economic recession.

Figure 6: Energy and electricity consumption per employee (normal climate)

Source: ODYSSEE

Energy efficiency improvement in the residential sector is a combination of regulatory measures for new buildings, that set more strict thermal insulation requirements and set minimum requirements for the efficiency of heating & cooling systems as well as for hot water production, and on the other hand support measures for retroffiting the existing building stock.

The "Saving at home" programme is a national programme for residential sector, offering financial support for interventions in building envelope, heating/cooling systems, and installation of RES for domestic hot water production. It was first launched in 2011 and the type of financial support offered was a subsidy ranging from 15% to 70% based on income criteria, while for the remaining investment zero-interest loan. Basic requirement of the programme was the issuing of EPC before and after the interventions.


Table 2: Sample of policies and measures implemented in the building sector

MeasuresDescriptionExpected savings, impact evaluationMore information available
‘Saving at home’ programmeThis programme was implemented in the period 2014-2016 and involved providing grant and low rate loan for energy efficiency intervantions to 26.164 buildings.210.64 ktoe (cumulative 2014-2020)
Source: MURE

Transport

The split of transport energy consumption by mode is almost the same in 2015 compared with 2000. Cars account for 39% of the transport 's consumption, following by trucks & light vehicles with 31.5% share, air with 15% and  water with 8%. 

Figure 7: Split of the transport energy consumption by mode

Source: ODYSSEE

Cars represent 80% of passanger traffic in 2015, followed by bus with 17.3% and only 2.4% for rail. The share of cars increased almost by 8.5% in comparison to 2000, bus reduced by 7,4% and rail stayed almost constant (-1%).

Figure 8: Share of transport in passenger traffic

Source: ODYSSEE

The breakdown of freight transport remained the same between year 2000 and 2015. Road freight transport is dominant with 98.5%share and only 1.5% accounts to rail freight transport.

Figure 9: Share of modes in freight traffic

Source: ODYSSEE

Greece's total final energy consumption for transport decreased by 12% from 2000 to 2015. The increasing activity contributed to an increase of 2.7Mtoe, while the energy savings contributed with a decrease of 3.6Mtoe. 

Figure 10: Main drivers of the energy consumption variation in transport

Source: ODYSSEE

The 4th NEEAP of Greece, published in 2017, provides a comprehensive overview of the progress made towards the EU 2020 targets and gives the mesures implemented per sector. 


Table 3: Policies and measures into force in the transport sector

MeasuresDescriptionExpected savings, impact evaluationMore information available
Replacement of private vehicles and promotion of the use of energy-efficient vehicles (vehicles fuelled by biofuels and hybrid vehicles)Financial incentives for the replacement of old private vehicles with new energy efficient ones. In total 165,778 vehicles replaced. Cumulative savings 2014-2010: 462.71ktoe
Linking of vehicle taxation to energy efficiency and CO2 emissionsRegulation
Source: MURE

Industry

The overall industrial energy consumption decreased by 31% between 2000 and 2015. All sectors decreased (with shares ranking from 32% to 53%) except from non-ferrous sector that remained almost constant. The industry sector was the one of the first sectors which sustain the effects of the economic recession in Greece.

Figure 11: Final energy consumption by branch

Source: ODYSSEE

Specific consumption of steel, paper and cement shows an overall decreasing trend in the period from 2000 to 2015, with many fluctuations in-between.

Figure 12: Unit consumption of energy‐intensive products (toe/t)

Source: ODYSSEE

Greece's total final energy consumption for industry decreased by 33% from 2000 to 2015. Main drivers for this decrease are energy savings and change in activity. 

Figure 13: Main drivers of the energy consumption variation in industry

Source: ODYSSEE

The 4th NEEAP of Greece, published in 2017, provides a comprehensive overview of the progress made towards the EU 2020 targets and gives the mesures implemented per sector. 

Table 4: Policies and measures into force in industry

MeasuresDescriptionExpected savings, impact evaluationMore information available
Innovative Entrepreneurship, Supply Chain, Food, DrinksBusiness loans with favourable terms
Relocation of enterprises to industrial-business zones and business parksFinancial incentives
Source: MURE