Overview

Final energy consumption has grown up by 0.5%/year from 2000 to 2007 and decreased by 0.7%/year afterwards. In 2017 the final energy consumption reached 26 Mtoe (at normal climate), i.e. about the same level as in 2000. Industry and residential are the largest consuming sectors with 29.2% and 28.5% of the final consumption in 2017. Industry recorded 10 pc point decrease since 2000. The transport sector represents 26.9% of final consumption (+9.9 pc points compared to 2000). The service sector accounted for 13% (-1.6 pc points compared to 2000).

Figure 1: Final energy consumption by sector (normal climate)

Source: ODYSSEE

Energy efficiency of final consumption, as measured by ODEX improved by an average of 1.5%/year from 2000 to 2017 (or 26%). Largest energy savings were obtained in the industry sector (2.5%/year), following by residential (1.3%/year) and services (1.2%/year). No real progress can be observed in the transport sector.

Figure 2: Technical Energy Efficiency Index

Source: ODYSSEE

The Czech Republic set the final energy saving target of 51.1 PJ for the period 2014 - 2020 and 84 PJ (i.e. 462 PJ of cummulative savings according to the Article 7) for the period 2021 - 2030 in the National Energy and Climate Plan (NECP). The Czech Republic has decided to reach the target by alternative measures. Two measures are the most important - the New Green Savings Programme 2014 - 2020, with expected energy total new annual savings of 10.3 PJ in the period 2014 - 2020, which focuses on energy savings in living buildings and the Operational Programme Enterprise and Innovation for Competitiveness in industry sector with expected total new annual energy savings of 7.6 PJ in the period 2017 - 2020. Follow-ups of both programmes are under preparation with expected total new annual energy saving 19 and 2 PJ. Big expectations are related to the introduction of the Modernisation Fund, which could bring total new annual energy savings of 12,3 PJ. A typical cross-cutting measure is represented by the State Programme in Support of Energy Savings (Efekt).

Table 1: Sample of cross-cutting measures

MeasuresNEEAP measuresDescriptionExpected savings, impact evaluationMore information available
State Programme in Support of Energy Savings (Efekt)yesState Programme in Support of Energy Savings contributes to national energy savings target according to Article 7 of the energy efficiency directive 2012/27/EU. The main support is concentrated on actions with indirect effects on energy saving, such as public awareness, education expert and free advice. 1.6 PJ in the period 2014 - 2020Link
Source: MURE

Buildings

In 2017, space heatinging accounted for 69% of the sector's consumption, water heating for 17%, cooking for 7% and electrical appliances for 7%. Space heating consumption decreased by 0.24%/year since 2000. Consumption of electrical appliances increased by 1.7%/year and water heating by around 2%/year. Residential energy consumption increased by 0.26%/year since 2000.

Figure 3: Energy consumption of space heating per m2

Source: ODYSSEE

Figure 4: Energy consumption per dwelling by end-use (except space heating)

Source: ODYSSEE

Final energy consumption of households increased from 6.44  Mtoe in 2000 to 7.19 Mtoe in 2017. Energy savings (1.72 Mtoe), caused by massive insulations of dwellings, were over weighted by three other factors -  more dwellings (0.97 Mtoe), larger homes (0.84 Mtoe) and more appliances (0.56 Mtoe). The contributions of climate correction and other causes to the energy consumption change were only small.

Figure 5: Main drivers of the energy consumption variation in households

Source: ODYSSEE

The energy consumption per employee in service sector is steadily decreasing by 0.8%/year since 2000. However electricity consumption per employee, due to the diffusion electrical appliances in offices, is increasing by 0.82%/year over the same period.

Figure 6: Energy and electricity consumption per employee (normal climate)

Source: ODYSSEE

The main measure for the building sector is the New Green Savings Programme 2014-2020 which focuses on single family houses and apartment buildings. The Operational Programme Enterprise and Innovation for Competitiveness aims, besides others, at improving the energy performance of buildings in the business sector and the Operational Programme Environment has an Priority Axe supporting improvement of energy efficiency in public buildings.

Table 2: Sample of policies and measures implemented in the building sector

MeasuresDescriptionExpected savings, impact evaluationMore information available
New Green Savings Programme 2014-2020New Green Savings Programme 2014–2020 administrated by the State Environmental Fund, focuses on energy savings and the efficient use of the energy sources in structures. This programme is running between 2014 and 2020, and has been prepared for the owners and investors behind single-family buildings and housing buildings.10.3 PJ in the period 2014–2020Link
Operational Programme EnvironmentPriority Axe 5 of this programme supports energy efficiency and use of RES in public buildings.5 PJ in the period 2014 - 2020Link
Source: MURE, Ministry of Industry and Trade

Transport

Cars account for 54.4% of the sector’s consumption and road freight transport for 26.7%. Bus transport represents 9.8% and air transport 5.9%. The rest represents rail (3.1%) and water transport (0.1%).

Figure 7: Split of the transport energy consumption by mode

Source: ODYSSEE

Long lasting repairs of highways and substantial improvement of the railway system led to increase of railway share in passenger traffic by 6 percentage points from 11.9% in 2000 to 17.9 % in 2017. The shares of cars and buses decreased from 67% to 66% and from 21% to 16% in the same period, respectively.

Figure 8: Share of transport modes in passenger traffic

Source: ODYSSEE

On the other side, the share of rail in freight transport decreased from 30.9% to 26.4%. As railway profiles are almost fully explored, the road freight transport has higher availability and is also more flexible.

Figure 9: Share of modes in freight traffic

Source: ODYSSEE

Transport energy consumption has been increasing rapidly by 2.8%/year. This trend is caused by the development of transport activity (almost +1 Mtoe) (more passenger-kilometers and tonne-kilometers) and by other effects (+1.78 Mtoe). Impacts of modal shift and energy savings are negligible. Growing energy consumption in transport negates energy savings from other sectors.

Figure 10: Main drivers of the energy consumption variation in transport (2000-2014)

Source: ODYSSEE

Low energy savings in transport sectors are mainly caused by slow implementation of Operational programme transport, which focuses on modal shift measures. The main objective in freight transport is to switch from road transport to rail transport.

Table 3: Policies and measures into force in the transport sector

MeasuresDescriptionExpected savings, impact evaluationMore information available
Operational Programme TransportSupport of multimodal freight transport and modernisation of the railway and road network.LowLink
Combined transportMeasures supporting combined transportLowLink
Source: MURE

Industry

Final energy consumption of industry decreased rapidly by 1.6 %/year. The largest share of 22.2% is attributed to the steel industry. Chemicals, non-metallic, non-ferrous and paper industries constitute 34.5% of the total energy consumption in industry.

Figure 11: Final energy consumption by branch

Source: ODYSSEE, steel including blast furnaces

Steel industry exhibits decreasing trend of energy intensity, it decreased by 18% in the period 2000 - 2017. A rather opposite trend was observed for the specific energy consumption of pulp and paper production, which grew by 33% in the same period, with quite big fluctuations.

Figure 12: Unit consumption of energy‐intensive products (toe/t)

Source: ODYSSEE

Industry reached remarkable energy savings (5.12 Mtoe) in the period 1000 - 2017, but hey were more or less compensated by the growth of industrial production (5.65 Mtoe). Structural changes from heavy to light industry had a substantial impact on final energy consumption in industry and contributed to a reduction by 3.53 Mtoe.

Figure 13: Main drivers of the energy consumption variation in industry

Source: ODYSSEE

The most important measure in the industrial sector is the Operational Programme Enterprise and Innovation for Competitiveness which through financial incentives (investment subsidies and low interest loans) supports energy efficiency measures.

Table 4: Policies and measures into force in industry

MeasuresDescriptionExpected savings, impact evaluationMore information available
Operational Programme Enterprise and Innovation for CompetitivenessIncreasing the energy efficiency in industry and using renewable energy sources7.6 PJ in the period 2014 - 2020Link
Source: MURE, Ministry of Industry and Trade